Current research and development in integrated optical signal processing modules such as rf spectrum analyzers using acoustooptic (AO) interaction in planar waveguide1 have been significantly impeded by the poor performance of the waveguide lenses. The waveguide lenses involved suffer from undesirable features that include small light beam aperture, high optical loss, very small tolerance allowable in lens placement and separation, and long focal length. Long focal length will result in a large substrate size and thus high optical throughput loss, severe waveguide scattering, and high cost.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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