A Raman amplifier pumped by many independent pump beams propagating at slight angles to the input Stokes beam can give a very uniform gain for the Stokes by averaging the intensity fluctuations in the pump beams.1,2 Each pair of pump waves interferes to give a gratinglike intensity variation in space which appears to the Stokes wave as a nonuniform gain.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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