The quest for retrieving fossil fuels from the geological formations over the last 60 years has caused an explosion of innovations that are little known outside the oil and gas industry. The most recent round of innovations has focused on the use of advanced sensors for in-situ fluid identification of crude oils in an oil well at pressures ranging from a few tens of psi to 30,000 psi, and a thermal range from 20°C to 177°C. These constraints cause a number of challenges for sensor design, especially considering that the maximum size of the sensor assembly and associated electronics must fit in a cylinder that is approximately 2.25-inches in diameter and cannot exceed approximately 36-inches.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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