Based on the analytical analysis of the complex coupled-mode equations for long-period fiber gratings, coupling states are defined to reveal the relationship between design parameters and transmission characteristics. Thus the design parameters of the gratings can be determined by selecting the coupling state corresponding to ideal transmission characteristics for sensing applications. In this way, gratings are designed for refractive index sensing, and the optimization scheme based on the coupling state is verified by the sensitivity enhancement in the experimental results.

© 2019 The Author(s)

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