In a Bell experiment, one prepares pairs of entangled particles and sends them to two observers, Alice and Bob, for measurement and detection [1]. For some choices of their measurement settings, Alice and Bob may observe strong correlations between their results in accordance with the predictions of quantum mechanical theory. Conversely, any physical theory that assumes no physical influence can be faster than the speed of light and that properties of physical systems are elements of reality [2]—a local realistic theory—can predict only a limited amount of correlation between Alice’s and Bob’s measurement outcomes. Upon observing correlations sufficient to violate Bell’s inequality, Alice and Bob must abandon local realism.

© 2013 IEEE

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