Abstract

Optics scholars did not only discover optical phenomena and laws governing them. Some of them also invented impressive optical systems and instruments or offered us techniques to juggle with optical signals and rays. One typical example of the impressive optical systems is the camera obscura invented by Ibn Al- Haytham. For techniques enabling us to easily handle optical rays, one can mention Young’s method to handle rays put into play by refraction. Nine centuries before him, Ibn Sahl proposed an elegant method to manipulate refraction related rays. These three examples will be handled in this paper, together with a historical overview inviting the reader to be in the context of this fascinating works.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Rey, “Les sciences orientales avant les grecs.” Paris. 1942.
  2. C. Mugler, “Les origines de la science grecque chez Homère.” Paris. 1964.
  3. Aristote. “Petits traités d’histoire naturelle.” translation to French. Paris, 1953.
  4. T. Henri-Martine, “Hypothèse astronomique de Pythagore.” Rome. 1872.
  5. R. Rashed, “Le discours de ta lumière d’Ibn Al-Haytham.” Traduction française critique Rev. d’hist. des Sci., T. XXI. 1968.
  6. A. Mieli, “La science arabe et son rôle dans l’évolution scientifique mondiale, par Aldo Mieli. Avec quelques additions de HenriPaul-Joseph Renaud. Max Meyerhof, Julius Ruska, E. J. Brill, Leiden 1938 et 1966.
  7. E. Wiedermann, “Zu Ibn Al-Haithams” Optik.” Archiv f. Geschichte der Naturwissen-schaft III, 1–53, 1910.
  8. J. Le Goff, “Les intellectuels au Moyen Age,” Paris, 1957.
  9. A. C. Crombie, “Augustine to Galileo, the history of science,” T. I. Heinemann Ltd, London. 1957.
  10. A. C. Crombie, “Robert Grossteste and the origins of the experimental science.” Oxford. 1953.
  11. R. Descartes, “Oeuvres complètes de Descartes,” T”. IV. Paris. 1965.
  12. P. de Fermat, “Varie opera, math.,” Totasea. 1679.
  13. F. M. Grimaldi, “Physico-mathesis de Lumine, coloribus et irride,” published just after his death, Bologna, 1665.
  14. I. Newton, “Principes mathématiques de ta philosophie naturelle,” (Translation to French 1756). Paris 1966.
  15. C. Huygens, “Traité d’optique.” réédition, Paris, 1920.
  16. T. Young, “The bakerian lectures. On the theory of light and colours,” Phil, trans., 1802.
    [Crossref]
  17. T. Young, “Outlines of experimentáis and inquiries respecting sound and light.” Phil, trans., 1800.
  18. A. Sommerfeld, “Optics, Lectures on theoretical Physics.” Vol. IV. Academic Press Inc., New-York, 1954.
  19. D. C. Lindberg, “Medieval Islamic achievement in optics.” OPN. 14, 30–35, 2003.
  20. D. C. Lindberg, “Theories of Vision from Al-Kindi to Kepler,” Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1976.
  21. S. Georges, “Introduction to the History of Science.” Carnegie Institution of Washington, by the Williams and Wilkins Company. Baltimore.
  22. Hunain Ibn Ishaq wrote the first textbook of ophthalmology; see Meyerhof. 1928. See also; Fakhry. Majid. 1983 (1970), p 10.12; Elgood, 1951, p 70, 75, 89, 100, 267–269; Hitti, 1956, 1956 (1937), p 313–364; Meyerhof, 1944, and O’Leary, 1957 (1949).
  23. R. Rashed, “A pioneer in anaclastics: Ibn Sahl on burning mirrors and lenses,” Isis, 81, pp. 464–491, 1990.
  24. K. B. Wolf, “Geometric Optics on Phase Space.” p. 9. Springer. 2004.
  25. R. Rashed, “Géométrie et dioptrique au Xe siècle: Ibn Sahl, Al-Quhi et Ibn Al-Haytham,” Paris”. Les Belles Lettres, 1993.
  26. A. Ad-Difaa, “Exact Sciences in Islamic Arab Civilization.” 1st Ed., Rissala Foundation, Beirut. 1981. Jan. 2007.
  27. Q. H. Tuquan, “The Arab scientific heritage in mathematics and astronomy.” Beirut, Dar Al-Shuruq. 1963.
  28. R. Rashed, “Le modèle de la sphère transparente et 1, explication de l’arc-en-ciel : Ibn Al-Haytham - Al-Farisi.” Revue d'histoire des sciences. 22, 109–140. 1970.
  29. Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York. 1970–1990.
  30. Arnold Sir Thomas, “Islamic Heritage.” Translated in Arabic by Jarsis Fathallah. Beirut. Dar Talia, 1972.
  31. Ana Maroa Cetto. “Historia de la Optica,” http://omega.ilce.edu.mx:3000/sites/eiencia/volumen1/ciencia2/32/html/sec8.html
  32. A brief history of the microscope, http://www.hometrainingtools.com/atticles/microbiology-cells-science-explorations-newsletter.html
  33. H. Hamam, “Ibn Sahl’s law of refraction: interpretation and analogy with a mechanical system.” http://www.umoncton.ca/genie/electrique/Cours/Hamam/Optics/Refract/IbnSahl/IbnSahl.htm , Jan. 2007.
  34. H. Hamam, “Refraction of light.” http://www.umoncton.ca/genie/eleclrique/Cours/Hamam/Optics/Refract/Refract.htm . May 2001.
  35. Bouali H-Eddine, Mourad Zghal, and Zohra Ben Lakhdar, “Popularisation of optical phenomena: establishing the first Ibn Al- Haytham workshop on photography”, in Proc. ETOP’2005. Marseille. 24–27 Sept. 2005.
  36. Maria L. Calvo, Jay M. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, “An extraordinary contribution of Ibn-Al-Hytham to Vision Science in the last millennium: An experience showing how vision mechanism is induced by external stimuli,“ in the 2nd Ibn Al-Haylham Workshop on Photography, Douz, Tunisia, Dec. 2006.

2003 (1)

D. C. Lindberg, “Medieval Islamic achievement in optics.” OPN. 14, 30–35, 2003.

1993 (1)

R. Rashed, “Géométrie et dioptrique au Xe siècle: Ibn Sahl, Al-Quhi et Ibn Al-Haytham,” Paris”. Les Belles Lettres, 1993.

1990 (1)

R. Rashed, “A pioneer in anaclastics: Ibn Sahl on burning mirrors and lenses,” Isis, 81, pp. 464–491, 1990.

1970 (1)

R. Rashed, “Le modèle de la sphère transparente et 1, explication de l’arc-en-ciel : Ibn Al-Haytham - Al-Farisi.” Revue d'histoire des sciences. 22, 109–140. 1970.

1968 (1)

R. Rashed, “Le discours de ta lumière d’Ibn Al-Haytham.” Traduction française critique Rev. d’hist. des Sci., T. XXI. 1968.

1802 (1)

T. Young, “The bakerian lectures. On the theory of light and colours,” Phil, trans., 1802.
[Crossref]

1800 (1)

T. Young, “Outlines of experimentáis and inquiries respecting sound and light.” Phil, trans., 1800.

Ad-Difaa, A.

A. Ad-Difaa, “Exact Sciences in Islamic Arab Civilization.” 1st Ed., Rissala Foundation, Beirut. 1981. Jan. 2007.

Aristote,

Aristote. “Petits traités d’histoire naturelle.” translation to French. Paris, 1953.

Ben Lakhdar, Zohra

Bouali H-Eddine, Mourad Zghal, and Zohra Ben Lakhdar, “Popularisation of optical phenomena: establishing the first Ibn Al- Haytham workshop on photography”, in Proc. ETOP’2005. Marseille. 24–27 Sept. 2005.

Calvo, Maria L.

Maria L. Calvo, Jay M. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, “An extraordinary contribution of Ibn-Al-Hytham to Vision Science in the last millennium: An experience showing how vision mechanism is induced by external stimuli,“ in the 2nd Ibn Al-Haylham Workshop on Photography, Douz, Tunisia, Dec. 2006.

Crombie, A. C.

A. C. Crombie, “Augustine to Galileo, the history of science,” T. I. Heinemann Ltd, London. 1957.

A. C. Crombie, “Robert Grossteste and the origins of the experimental science.” Oxford. 1953.

de Fermat, P.

P. de Fermat, “Varie opera, math.,” Totasea. 1679.

Descartes, R.

R. Descartes, “Oeuvres complètes de Descartes,” T”. IV. Paris. 1965.

Enoch, Jay M.

Maria L. Calvo, Jay M. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, “An extraordinary contribution of Ibn-Al-Hytham to Vision Science in the last millennium: An experience showing how vision mechanism is induced by external stimuli,“ in the 2nd Ibn Al-Haylham Workshop on Photography, Douz, Tunisia, Dec. 2006.

Georges, S.

S. Georges, “Introduction to the History of Science.” Carnegie Institution of Washington, by the Williams and Wilkins Company. Baltimore.

Grimaldi, F. M.

F. M. Grimaldi, “Physico-mathesis de Lumine, coloribus et irride,” published just after his death, Bologna, 1665.

H-Eddine, Bouali

Bouali H-Eddine, Mourad Zghal, and Zohra Ben Lakhdar, “Popularisation of optical phenomena: establishing the first Ibn Al- Haytham workshop on photography”, in Proc. ETOP’2005. Marseille. 24–27 Sept. 2005.

Henri-Martine, T.

T. Henri-Martine, “Hypothèse astronomique de Pythagore.” Rome. 1872.

Huygens, C.

C. Huygens, “Traité d’optique.” réédition, Paris, 1920.

Lakshminarayanan, V.

Maria L. Calvo, Jay M. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, “An extraordinary contribution of Ibn-Al-Hytham to Vision Science in the last millennium: An experience showing how vision mechanism is induced by external stimuli,“ in the 2nd Ibn Al-Haylham Workshop on Photography, Douz, Tunisia, Dec. 2006.

Le Goff, J.

J. Le Goff, “Les intellectuels au Moyen Age,” Paris, 1957.

Lindberg, D. C.

D. C. Lindberg, “Medieval Islamic achievement in optics.” OPN. 14, 30–35, 2003.

D. C. Lindberg, “Theories of Vision from Al-Kindi to Kepler,” Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1976.

Mieli, A.

A. Mieli, “La science arabe et son rôle dans l’évolution scientifique mondiale, par Aldo Mieli. Avec quelques additions de HenriPaul-Joseph Renaud. Max Meyerhof, Julius Ruska, E. J. Brill, Leiden 1938 et 1966.

Mugler, C.

C. Mugler, “Les origines de la science grecque chez Homère.” Paris. 1964.

Newton, I.

I. Newton, “Principes mathématiques de ta philosophie naturelle,” (Translation to French 1756). Paris 1966.

Rashed, R.

R. Rashed, “Géométrie et dioptrique au Xe siècle: Ibn Sahl, Al-Quhi et Ibn Al-Haytham,” Paris”. Les Belles Lettres, 1993.

R. Rashed, “A pioneer in anaclastics: Ibn Sahl on burning mirrors and lenses,” Isis, 81, pp. 464–491, 1990.

R. Rashed, “Le modèle de la sphère transparente et 1, explication de l’arc-en-ciel : Ibn Al-Haytham - Al-Farisi.” Revue d'histoire des sciences. 22, 109–140. 1970.

R. Rashed, “Le discours de ta lumière d’Ibn Al-Haytham.” Traduction française critique Rev. d’hist. des Sci., T. XXI. 1968.

Rey, A.

A. Rey, “Les sciences orientales avant les grecs.” Paris. 1942.

Sir Thomas, Arnold

Arnold Sir Thomas, “Islamic Heritage.” Translated in Arabic by Jarsis Fathallah. Beirut. Dar Talia, 1972.

Sommerfeld, A.

A. Sommerfeld, “Optics, Lectures on theoretical Physics.” Vol. IV. Academic Press Inc., New-York, 1954.

Tuquan, Q. H.

Q. H. Tuquan, “The Arab scientific heritage in mathematics and astronomy.” Beirut, Dar Al-Shuruq. 1963.

Wiedermann, E.

E. Wiedermann, “Zu Ibn Al-Haithams” Optik.” Archiv f. Geschichte der Naturwissen-schaft III, 1–53, 1910.

Wolf, K. B.

K. B. Wolf, “Geometric Optics on Phase Space.” p. 9. Springer. 2004.

Young, T.

T. Young, “The bakerian lectures. On the theory of light and colours,” Phil, trans., 1802.
[Crossref]

T. Young, “Outlines of experimentáis and inquiries respecting sound and light.” Phil, trans., 1800.

Zghal, Mourad

Bouali H-Eddine, Mourad Zghal, and Zohra Ben Lakhdar, “Popularisation of optical phenomena: establishing the first Ibn Al- Haytham workshop on photography”, in Proc. ETOP’2005. Marseille. 24–27 Sept. 2005.

A pioneer in anaclastics: Ibn Sahl on burning mirrors and lenses (1)

R. Rashed, “A pioneer in anaclastics: Ibn Sahl on burning mirrors and lenses,” Isis, 81, pp. 464–491, 1990.

Les Belles Lettres (1)

R. Rashed, “Géométrie et dioptrique au Xe siècle: Ibn Sahl, Al-Quhi et Ibn Al-Haytham,” Paris”. Les Belles Lettres, 1993.

OPN (1)

D. C. Lindberg, “Medieval Islamic achievement in optics.” OPN. 14, 30–35, 2003.

Phil, trans. (2)

T. Young, “The bakerian lectures. On the theory of light and colours,” Phil, trans., 1802.
[Crossref]

T. Young, “Outlines of experimentáis and inquiries respecting sound and light.” Phil, trans., 1800.

Revue d'histoire des sciences (1)

R. Rashed, “Le modèle de la sphère transparente et 1, explication de l’arc-en-ciel : Ibn Al-Haytham - Al-Farisi.” Revue d'histoire des sciences. 22, 109–140. 1970.

Traduction française critique Rev. d’hist. des Sci. (1)

R. Rashed, “Le discours de ta lumière d’Ibn Al-Haytham.” Traduction française critique Rev. d’hist. des Sci., T. XXI. 1968.

Other (29)

A. Mieli, “La science arabe et son rôle dans l’évolution scientifique mondiale, par Aldo Mieli. Avec quelques additions de HenriPaul-Joseph Renaud. Max Meyerhof, Julius Ruska, E. J. Brill, Leiden 1938 et 1966.

E. Wiedermann, “Zu Ibn Al-Haithams” Optik.” Archiv f. Geschichte der Naturwissen-schaft III, 1–53, 1910.

J. Le Goff, “Les intellectuels au Moyen Age,” Paris, 1957.

A. C. Crombie, “Augustine to Galileo, the history of science,” T. I. Heinemann Ltd, London. 1957.

A. C. Crombie, “Robert Grossteste and the origins of the experimental science.” Oxford. 1953.

R. Descartes, “Oeuvres complètes de Descartes,” T”. IV. Paris. 1965.

P. de Fermat, “Varie opera, math.,” Totasea. 1679.

F. M. Grimaldi, “Physico-mathesis de Lumine, coloribus et irride,” published just after his death, Bologna, 1665.

I. Newton, “Principes mathématiques de ta philosophie naturelle,” (Translation to French 1756). Paris 1966.

C. Huygens, “Traité d’optique.” réédition, Paris, 1920.

D. C. Lindberg, “Theories of Vision from Al-Kindi to Kepler,” Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1976.

S. Georges, “Introduction to the History of Science.” Carnegie Institution of Washington, by the Williams and Wilkins Company. Baltimore.

Hunain Ibn Ishaq wrote the first textbook of ophthalmology; see Meyerhof. 1928. See also; Fakhry. Majid. 1983 (1970), p 10.12; Elgood, 1951, p 70, 75, 89, 100, 267–269; Hitti, 1956, 1956 (1937), p 313–364; Meyerhof, 1944, and O’Leary, 1957 (1949).

A. Rey, “Les sciences orientales avant les grecs.” Paris. 1942.

C. Mugler, “Les origines de la science grecque chez Homère.” Paris. 1964.

Aristote. “Petits traités d’histoire naturelle.” translation to French. Paris, 1953.

T. Henri-Martine, “Hypothèse astronomique de Pythagore.” Rome. 1872.

Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York. 1970–1990.

Arnold Sir Thomas, “Islamic Heritage.” Translated in Arabic by Jarsis Fathallah. Beirut. Dar Talia, 1972.

Ana Maroa Cetto. “Historia de la Optica,” http://omega.ilce.edu.mx:3000/sites/eiencia/volumen1/ciencia2/32/html/sec8.html

A brief history of the microscope, http://www.hometrainingtools.com/atticles/microbiology-cells-science-explorations-newsletter.html

H. Hamam, “Ibn Sahl’s law of refraction: interpretation and analogy with a mechanical system.” http://www.umoncton.ca/genie/electrique/Cours/Hamam/Optics/Refract/IbnSahl/IbnSahl.htm , Jan. 2007.

H. Hamam, “Refraction of light.” http://www.umoncton.ca/genie/eleclrique/Cours/Hamam/Optics/Refract/Refract.htm . May 2001.

Bouali H-Eddine, Mourad Zghal, and Zohra Ben Lakhdar, “Popularisation of optical phenomena: establishing the first Ibn Al- Haytham workshop on photography”, in Proc. ETOP’2005. Marseille. 24–27 Sept. 2005.

Maria L. Calvo, Jay M. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, “An extraordinary contribution of Ibn-Al-Hytham to Vision Science in the last millennium: An experience showing how vision mechanism is induced by external stimuli,“ in the 2nd Ibn Al-Haylham Workshop on Photography, Douz, Tunisia, Dec. 2006.

A. Sommerfeld, “Optics, Lectures on theoretical Physics.” Vol. IV. Academic Press Inc., New-York, 1954.

K. B. Wolf, “Geometric Optics on Phase Space.” p. 9. Springer. 2004.

A. Ad-Difaa, “Exact Sciences in Islamic Arab Civilization.” 1st Ed., Rissala Foundation, Beirut. 1981. Jan. 2007.

Q. H. Tuquan, “The Arab scientific heritage in mathematics and astronomy.” Beirut, Dar Al-Shuruq. 1963.