Abstract

This Letter reports the experimental realization of a novel, to the best of our knowledge, active power stabilization scheme in which laser power fluctuations are sensed via the radiation pressure driven motion they induce on a movable mirror. The mirror position and its fluctuations were determined by means of a weak auxiliary laser beam and a Michelson interferometer, which formed the in-loop sensor of the power stabilization feedback control system. This sensing technique exploits a nondemolition measurement, which can result in higher sensitivity for power fluctuations than direct, and hence destructive, detection. Here we used this new scheme in a proof-of-concept experiment to demonstrate power stabilization in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 10 kHz, limited at low frequencies by the thermal noise of the movable mirror at room temperature.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Corrections

14 April 2021: A typographical correction was made to the author listing.


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References

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    [Crossref]
  12. P. R. Saulson, Phys. Rev. D 42, 2437 (1990).
    [Crossref]

2020 (1)

2018 (2)

Q.-X. Li, S.-H. Yan, E. Wang, X. Zhang, and H. Zhang, AIP Adv. 8, 095221 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Vahlbruch, D. Wilken, M. Mehmet, and B. Willke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 173601 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

R. Singh, G. D. Cole, J. Cripe, and T. Corbitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 213604 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. M. Harry, and The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Class. Quantum Gravity 27, 084006 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Lett. 34, 2912 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Khalaidovski, A. Thüring, H. Rehbein, N. Lastzka, B. Willke, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053801 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

1990 (1)

P. R. Saulson, Phys. Rev. D 42, 2437 (1990).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

Y. Yamamoto, N. Imoto, and S. Machida, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3243 (1986).
[Crossref]

Barnes, J.

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cikach, F.

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cole, G. D.

R. Singh, G. D. Cole, J. Cripe, and T. Corbitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 213604 (2016).
[Crossref]

Comhair, S.

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref]

Corbitt, T.

R. Singh, G. D. Cole, J. Cripe, and T. Corbitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 213604 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cripe, J.

R. Singh, G. D. Cole, J. Cripe, and T. Corbitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 213604 (2016).
[Crossref]

Danilishin, S. L.

Danzmann, K.

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Lett. 34, 2912 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Khalaidovski, A. Thüring, H. Rehbein, N. Lastzka, B. Willke, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053801 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Lett. 33, 1509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dweik, R. A.

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref]

Harry, G. M.

G. M. Harry, and The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Class. Quantum Gravity 27, 084006 (2010).
[Crossref]

Imoto, N.

Y. Yamamoto, N. Imoto, and S. Machida, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3243 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kao, C.

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref]

Khalaidovski, A.

A. Khalaidovski, A. Thüring, H. Rehbein, N. Lastzka, B. Willke, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kwee, P.

Lastzka, N.

A. Khalaidovski, A. Thüring, H. Rehbein, N. Lastzka, B. Willke, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.-X.

Q.-X. Li, S.-H. Yan, E. Wang, X. Zhang, and H. Zhang, AIP Adv. 8, 095221 (2018).
[Crossref]

Machida, S.

Y. Yamamoto, N. Imoto, and S. Machida, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3243 (1986).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, N.

N. Matsumoto, “Classical pendulum feels quantum back-action,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Tokyo, 2016).

Mehmet, M.

H. Vahlbruch, D. Wilken, M. Mehmet, and B. Willke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 173601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nery, M. T.

Nikodem, M.

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rehbein, H.

A. Khalaidovski, A. Thüring, H. Rehbein, N. Lastzka, B. Willke, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Saulson, P. R.

P. R. Saulson, Phys. Rev. D 42, 2437 (1990).
[Crossref]

Schnabel, R.

A. Khalaidovski, A. Thüring, H. Rehbein, N. Lastzka, B. Willke, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

R. Singh, G. D. Cole, J. Cripe, and T. Corbitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 213604 (2016).
[Crossref]

Thüring, A.

A. Khalaidovski, A. Thüring, H. Rehbein, N. Lastzka, B. Willke, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vahlbruch, H.

H. Vahlbruch, D. Wilken, M. Mehmet, and B. Willke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 173601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Venneberg, J. R.

Wang, E.

Q.-X. Li, S.-H. Yan, E. Wang, X. Zhang, and H. Zhang, AIP Adv. 8, 095221 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wilken, D.

H. Vahlbruch, D. Wilken, M. Mehmet, and B. Willke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 173601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Willke, B.

M. T. Nery, S. L. Danilishin, J. R. Venneberg, and B. Willke, Opt. Lett. 45, 3969 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Vahlbruch, D. Wilken, M. Mehmet, and B. Willke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 173601 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Khalaidovski, A. Thüring, H. Rehbein, N. Lastzka, B. Willke, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053801 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Lett. 34, 2912 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Kwee, B. Willke, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Lett. 33, 1509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wysocki, G.

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto, N. Imoto, and S. Machida, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3243 (1986).
[Crossref]

Yan, S.-H.

Q.-X. Li, S.-H. Yan, E. Wang, X. Zhang, and H. Zhang, AIP Adv. 8, 095221 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, E.

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Q.-X. Li, S.-H. Yan, E. Wang, X. Zhang, and H. Zhang, AIP Adv. 8, 095221 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Q.-X. Li, S.-H. Yan, E. Wang, X. Zhang, and H. Zhang, AIP Adv. 8, 095221 (2018).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

Q.-X. Li, S.-H. Yan, E. Wang, X. Zhang, and H. Zhang, AIP Adv. 8, 095221 (2018).
[Crossref]

Class. Quantum Gravity (1)

G. M. Harry, and The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Class. Quantum Gravity 27, 084006 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

Y. Yamamoto, N. Imoto, and S. Machida, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3243 (1986).
[Crossref]

A. Khalaidovski, A. Thüring, H. Rehbein, N. Lastzka, B. Willke, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 80, 053801 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

P. R. Saulson, Phys. Rev. D 42, 2437 (1990).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. Singh, G. D. Cole, J. Cripe, and T. Corbitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 213604 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Vahlbruch, D. Wilken, M. Mehmet, and B. Willke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 173601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Wang, M. Nikodem, E. Zhang, F. Cikach, J. Barnes, S. Comhair, R. A. Dweik, C. Kao, and G. Wysocki, Sci. Rep. 5, 9096 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

N. Matsumoto, “Classical pendulum feels quantum back-action,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Tokyo, 2016).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the experimental setup. An NPRO laser was split into the transfer beam (red trace) and sensing beam (orange trace) by a beam splitter. Both beams were guided to a vacuum chamber, where a breadboard containing the movable mirror and the Michelson interferometer was located. The MI PD was the in-loop sensor for two control loops: the Michelson Interferometer (MI) loop, which used a PZT as an actuator, and the power stabilization loop, which used an AOM as an actuator.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Amplitude spectral density (ASD) of the interferometer displacement noise measured with the fixed mirror and with the micro-oscillator mirror. The black curve shows the thermal noise fit for the micro-oscillator.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. ASD of the free running RPN of the transfer beam (with white noise injection) measured by the OOL PD (red curve), and the corresponding interferometer displacement projected to the RPN of the out-of-loop beam (blue curve).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. ASD of the RPN measured by the OOL PD when the power stabilization control loop is turned off (red) and when the loop is on for different transfer beam powers. The dashed curves were calculated as an uncorrelated sum of the micro-oscillator’s thermal noise projected to RPN and the expected free running noise reduction by the stabilization control loop.

Equations (1)

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R P N o o l , t n = c f 0 P ¯ t 2 π k B T m Q f ,

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