Abstract

We present a novel pseudo-Banyan optical packet switching system (SBOPSS) for optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks. The system includes a group of pseudo-Banyan space switches together with single-stage downsized fiber-delay-line-based optical buffers. SBOPSS is scalable, with the result that each pseudo-Banyan space switch performs packet switching only for a cluster of wavelengths. The downsized optical buffers that are shared by output ports via the use of a small number of internal wavelengths result in efficient reduction in packet loss. Essentially, SBOPSS employs a packet scheduling algorithm, referred to as the parallel and incremental packet scheduler (PIPS). Given a set of newly arriving packets per time slot, PIPS determines a maximum number of valid paths (packets) to be scheduled with the current buffers’ state taken into account. The algorithm aims at maximizing the system throughput subject to satisfying three constraints, which are switch-contention free, buffer-contention free, and sequential delivery. Significantly, we prove that PIPS is incremental in the sense that the computed-path sets are monotonically nondecreasing over time. We then propose a hardware parallel system architecture for the implementation of PIPS. As is shown, PIPS achieves a near-optimal solution with an exceptionally low computational complexity, O(P×log2(NMW)), where P is the newly-arriving-packet set, N the number of input ports, and M and W the numbers of internal and external wavelengths, respectively. From simulation results that pit the PIPS algorithm against four other algorithms, we show that PIPS outperforms these algorithms on both system throughput and computational complexity.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008

M. Yuang, I. Chao, B. Lo, P. Tien, J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. Lin, S. Lee, C. Chien, “HOPSMAN: an experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb∕s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

V. Eramo, M. Listanti, A. Germoni, “Cost evaluation of optical packet switches equipped with limited-range and full-range converters for contention resolution,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 390–407, Feb. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007

F. Yan, W. Hu, W. Sun, W. Guo, Y. Jin, H. He, Y. Dong, “Placements of shared wavelength converter groups inside a cost-effective permuted Clos network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 981–983, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006

Z. Zhang, Y. Yang, “Optical scheduling in buffered WDM interconnects with limited range wavelength conversion capability,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 71–82, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. Yuang, S. Lee, P. Tien, Y. Lin, J. Shih, F. Tsai, A. Chen, “Optical coarse packet-swtiched IP-over-WDM network OPSINET: technologies and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 117–127, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, Y. Yang, “Low-loss switching fabric design for recirculating buffer in WDM optical packet switching networks using arrayed waveguide grating routers,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 1469–1472, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

T. Zhang, K. Lu, J. Jue, “Shared fiber delay line buffers in asynchronous optical packet switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 118–127, April 2006.
[CrossRef]

O. Ladouceur, B. Small, K. Bergman, “Physical layer scalability of WDM optical packet interconnection networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 262–270, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

H. Li, I. L.-J. Thng, “Cost-saving two-layer wavelength conversion in optical switching network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 705–712, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

V. Eramo, M. Listanti, M. Donato, “Performance evaluation of a bufferless optical packet switch with limited-range wavelength converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 644–646, Feb. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Y. Lin, M. Yuang, S. Lee, W. Way, “Using superimposed ASK label in a 10-Gb∕s multihop all-optical label swapping system,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 351–361, Feb. 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

B. Sarker, T. Yoshino, S. Majumder, “All-optical wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation (XPM) in a single-mode fiber and a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 340–342, March 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001

G. Shen, S. Bose, T. Cheng, C. Lu, T. Chai, “Performance study on a WDM packet switch with limited-range wavelength converters,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 432–434, Oct. 2001.
[CrossRef]

M. Chia, D. Hunter, I. Andonovic, P. Ball, I. Wright, S. Ferguson, K. Guild, M. O’Mahony, “Packet loss and delay performance of feedback and feed-forward arrayed-waveguide gratings-based optical packet switches with WDM inputs–outputs,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1241–1254, Sept. 2001.
[CrossRef]

S. Yao, S. Yoo, B. Mukherjee, “All-optical packet switching for metropolitan area networks: opportunities and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 142–148, March 2001.
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, P. Jeppesen, “Improvement of cascaded semiconductor optical amplifier gates by using holding light injection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 614–623, May 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

1993

Z. Hass, “The staggering switch: an electronically controlled optical packet switch,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 925–936, June 1993.
[CrossRef]

Andonovic, I.

Ball, P.

Bergman, K.

Bose, S.

G. Shen, S. Bose, T. Cheng, C. Lu, T. Chai, “Performance study on a WDM packet switch with limited-range wavelength converters,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 432–434, Oct. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Breuer, D.

Chai, T.

G. Shen, S. Bose, T. Cheng, C. Lu, T. Chai, “Performance study on a WDM packet switch with limited-range wavelength converters,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 432–434, Oct. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Chao, H.

Chao, I.

M. Yuang, I. Chao, B. Lo, P. Tien, J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. Lin, S. Lee, C. Chien, “HOPSMAN: an experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb∕s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

M. Yuang, S. Lee, P. Tien, Y. Lin, J. Shih, F. Tsai, A. Chen, “Optical coarse packet-swtiched IP-over-WDM network OPSINET: technologies and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 117–127, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

M. Yuang, I. Chao, B. Lo, P. Tien, J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. Lin, S. Lee, C. Chien, “HOPSMAN: an experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb∕s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

M. Yuang, P. Tien, J. Shih, S. Lee, Y. Lin, J. Chen, “A QoS optical packet-switching system for metro WDM networks,” in 31st European Conf. on Optical Communications, ECOC 2005, vol. 3, Sept. 25–29, 2005, pp. 351–352.

Cheng, T.

G. Shen, S. Bose, T. Cheng, C. Lu, T. Chai, “Performance study on a WDM packet switch with limited-range wavelength converters,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 432–434, Oct. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Chia, M.

Chien, C.

M. Yuang, I. Chao, B. Lo, P. Tien, J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. Lin, S. Lee, C. Chien, “HOPSMAN: an experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb∕s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Choa, F.

Dixit, S.

S. Dixit, IP OVER WDM Building the Next Generation Optical Internet, New York, NY: Wiley, 2004.

Donato, M.

V. Eramo, M. Listanti, M. Donato, “Performance evaluation of a bufferless optical packet switch with limited-range wavelength converters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 644–646, Feb. 2004.
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

F. Yan, W. Hu, W. Sun, W. Guo, Y. Jin, H. He, Y. Dong, “Placements of shared wavelength converter groups inside a cost-effective permuted Clos network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 981–983, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

Eramo, V.

Ferguson, S.

Germoni, A.

Gu, Y.

Guild, K.

Guo, W.

F. Yan, W. Hu, W. Sun, W. Guo, Y. Jin, H. He, Y. Dong, “Placements of shared wavelength converter groups inside a cost-effective permuted Clos network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 981–983, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

Hadimioglu, H.

Hass, Z.

Z. Hass, “The staggering switch: an electronically controlled optical packet switch,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 925–936, June 1993.
[CrossRef]

He, H.

F. Yan, W. Hu, W. Sun, W. Guo, Y. Jin, H. He, Y. Dong, “Placements of shared wavelength converter groups inside a cost-effective permuted Clos network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 981–983, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

Hu, G.

Hu, W.

F. Yan, W. Hu, W. Sun, W. Guo, Y. Jin, H. He, Y. Dong, “Placements of shared wavelength converter groups inside a cost-effective permuted Clos network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 981–983, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

Hunter, D.

Jeppesen, P.

Jin, Y.

F. Yan, W. Hu, W. Sun, W. Guo, Y. Jin, H. He, Y. Dong, “Placements of shared wavelength converter groups inside a cost-effective permuted Clos network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 981–983, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

Jue, J.

T. Zhang, K. Lu, J. Jue, “Shared fiber delay line buffers in asynchronous optical packet switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 118–127, April 2006.
[CrossRef]

Kindt, S.

Ladouceur, O.

Lee, S.

M. Yuang, I. Chao, B. Lo, P. Tien, J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. Lin, S. Lee, C. Chien, “HOPSMAN: an experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb∕s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

M. Yuang, S. Lee, P. Tien, Y. Lin, J. Shih, F. Tsai, A. Chen, “Optical coarse packet-swtiched IP-over-WDM network OPSINET: technologies and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 117–127, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Y. Lin, M. Yuang, S. Lee, W. Way, “Using superimposed ASK label in a 10-Gb∕s multihop all-optical label swapping system,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 351–361, Feb. 2004.
[CrossRef]

M. Yuang, P. Tien, J. Shih, S. Lee, Y. Lin, J. Chen, “A QoS optical packet-switching system for metro WDM networks,” in 31st European Conf. on Optical Communications, ECOC 2005, vol. 3, Sept. 25–29, 2005, pp. 351–352.

Li, H.

Li, L.

Li, S.

S. Li, Algebraic Switching Theory and Broadband Applications, Burlington, MA: Academic, 2001.

Liew, S.

Lin, J.

Lin, Y.

M. Yuang, I. Chao, B. Lo, P. Tien, J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. Lin, S. Lee, C. Chien, “HOPSMAN: an experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb∕s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

M. Yuang, S. Lee, P. Tien, Y. Lin, J. Shih, F. Tsai, A. Chen, “Optical coarse packet-swtiched IP-over-WDM network OPSINET: technologies and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 117–127, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Y. Lin, M. Yuang, S. Lee, W. Way, “Using superimposed ASK label in a 10-Gb∕s multihop all-optical label swapping system,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 351–361, Feb. 2004.
[CrossRef]

M. Yuang, P. Tien, J. Shih, S. Lee, Y. Lin, J. Chen, “A QoS optical packet-switching system for metro WDM networks,” in 31st European Conf. on Optical Communications, ECOC 2005, vol. 3, Sept. 25–29, 2005, pp. 351–352.

Listanti, M.

Lo, B.

M. Yuang, I. Chao, B. Lo, P. Tien, J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. Lin, S. Lee, C. Chien, “HOPSMAN: an experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb∕s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

G. Shen, S. Bose, T. Cheng, C. Lu, T. Chai, “Performance study on a WDM packet switch with limited-range wavelength converters,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 432–434, Oct. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Lu, K.

T. Zhang, K. Lu, J. Jue, “Shared fiber delay line buffers in asynchronous optical packet switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 118–127, April 2006.
[CrossRef]

Majumder, S.

B. Sarker, T. Yoshino, S. Majumder, “All-optical wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation (XPM) in a single-mode fiber and a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 340–342, March 2002.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

S. Yao, S. Yoo, B. Mukherjee, “All-optical packet switching for metropolitan area networks: opportunities and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 142–148, March 2001.
[CrossRef]

O’Mahony, M.

Obermann, K.

Papadimitriou, G.

Papazoglou, C.

Petermann, K.

Pomportsis, A.

Ru, G.

Sarker, B.

B. Sarker, T. Yoshino, S. Majumder, “All-optical wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation (XPM) in a single-mode fiber and a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 340–342, March 2002.
[CrossRef]

Shen, G.

G. Shen, S. Bose, T. Cheng, C. Lu, T. Chai, “Performance study on a WDM packet switch with limited-range wavelength converters,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 432–434, Oct. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Shih, J.

M. Yuang, S. Lee, P. Tien, Y. Lin, J. Shih, F. Tsai, A. Chen, “Optical coarse packet-swtiched IP-over-WDM network OPSINET: technologies and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 117–127, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. Yuang, P. Tien, J. Shih, S. Lee, Y. Lin, J. Chen, “A QoS optical packet-switching system for metro WDM networks,” in 31st European Conf. on Optical Communications, ECOC 2005, vol. 3, Sept. 25–29, 2005, pp. 351–352.

Small, B.

Spaziani, M.

Sun, W.

F. Yan, W. Hu, W. Sun, W. Guo, Y. Jin, H. He, Y. Dong, “Placements of shared wavelength converter groups inside a cost-effective permuted Clos network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 981–983, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

Thng, I. L.-J.

Tien, P.

M. Yuang, I. Chao, B. Lo, P. Tien, J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. Lin, S. Lee, C. Chien, “HOPSMAN: an experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb∕s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

M. Yuang, S. Lee, P. Tien, Y. Lin, J. Shih, F. Tsai, A. Chen, “Optical coarse packet-swtiched IP-over-WDM network OPSINET: technologies and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 117–127, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. Yuang, P. Tien, J. Shih, S. Lee, Y. Lin, J. Chen, “A QoS optical packet-switching system for metro WDM networks,” in 31st European Conf. on Optical Communications, ECOC 2005, vol. 3, Sept. 25–29, 2005, pp. 351–352.

Tsai, F.

M. Yuang, S. Lee, P. Tien, Y. Lin, J. Shih, F. Tsai, A. Chen, “Optical coarse packet-swtiched IP-over-WDM network OPSINET: technologies and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 117–127, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Turker, R.

Way, W.

Wei, C.

M. Yuang, I. Chao, B. Lo, P. Tien, J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. Lin, S. Lee, C. Chien, “HOPSMAN: an experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb∕s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

Wright, I.

Xiang, H.

Yan, F.

F. Yan, W. Hu, W. Sun, W. Guo, Y. Jin, H. He, Y. Dong, “Placements of shared wavelength converter groups inside a cost-effective permuted Clos network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 981–983, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Z. Zhang, Y. Yang, “Low-loss switching fabric design for recirculating buffer in WDM optical packet switching networks using arrayed waveguide grating routers,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 1469–1472, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, Y. Yang, “Optical scheduling in buffered WDM interconnects with limited range wavelength conversion capability,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 71–82, Jan. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Yao, S.

S. Yao, S. Yoo, B. Mukherjee, “All-optical packet switching for metropolitan area networks: opportunities and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 142–148, March 2001.
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

S. Yao, S. Yoo, B. Mukherjee, “All-optical packet switching for metropolitan area networks: opportunities and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 142–148, March 2001.
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, T.

B. Sarker, T. Yoshino, S. Majumder, “All-optical wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation (XPM) in a single-mode fiber and a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 340–342, March 2002.
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Yu, X.

Yuang, M.

M. Yuang, I. Chao, B. Lo, P. Tien, J. Chen, C. Wei, Y. Lin, S. Lee, C. Chien, “HOPSMAN: an experimental testbed system for a 10-Gb∕s optical packet-switched WDM metro ring network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 158–166, July 2008.
[CrossRef]

M. Yuang, S. Lee, P. Tien, Y. Lin, J. Shih, F. Tsai, A. Chen, “Optical coarse packet-swtiched IP-over-WDM network OPSINET: technologies and experiments,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 117–127, Aug. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Y. Lin, M. Yuang, S. Lee, W. Way, “Using superimposed ASK label in a 10-Gb∕s multihop all-optical label swapping system,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 351–361, Feb. 2004.
[CrossRef]

M. Yuang, P. Tien, J. Shih, S. Lee, Y. Lin, J. Chen, “A QoS optical packet-switching system for metro WDM networks,” in 31st European Conf. on Optical Communications, ECOC 2005, vol. 3, Sept. 25–29, 2005, pp. 351–352.

Zhang, G.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, T.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SBOPSS—system architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PIPS algorithm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration for the proof of Theorem 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Hardware parallel system architecture.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Computational Complexity

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Table 2 System Throughput Comparison

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Table 3 System Throughput of SBOPSS Using PIPS for Different Buffer Sizes

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Table 4 Component-Count Comparison of Space Switches With Switch Size N W × N W

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Table 5 Signal-Quality Comparison of Space Switches Qith Switch Size N W × N W

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T ( P , N , M , W ) = O ( 1 ) + O ( P ) + O ( log 2 ( N M W × log 2 ( N W ) ) ) + O ( P × log 2 ( N M W × log 2 ( N W ) ) ) + O ( Q ) = O ( P × ( log 2 ( N M W ) + log 2 log 2 ( N W ) ) ) = O ( P × log 2 ( N M W ) ) .