Abstract

The current status of fiber based optical parametric oscillators is presented with a focus on pulsed systems employing microstructure fibers. It is shown based on standard expressions for parametric processes in optical fibers that systems employing short (less than a few cm) optical fibers lead to superior performance in terms of wavelength tunability and output power. Practical guidelines for realizing a working system are given. These devices are now practical as ultrafast pulsed-light sources and for extending the wavelengths of operation of existing mode-locked fiber lasers.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. M. H. Dunn, M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Parametric generation of tunable light from continuous-wave to femtosecond pulses," Science 286, 1513-1517 (1999).
  2. J. C. Diels, W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Academic, 1996).
  3. M. Dantus, V. Lozovoy, "Experimental coherent laser control of physicochemical processes," Chem. Rev. 104, 1813-1859 (2004).
  4. F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, X. S. Xie, M. Katz, W. Seitz, D. Kopf, "Broadly tunable dual-wavelength light source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1292-1294 (2006).
  5. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic , 2003).
  6. M. Marhic, Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers, Oscillators and Related Devices (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007).
  7. V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer, 1999) pp. 345-362.
  8. G. Wong, A. Chen, S. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. Harvey, N. Joly, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. Russell, "Continuous-wave tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic-crystal fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 2505-2511 (2005).
  9. J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, "Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1048-1050 (2001).
  10. K. S. Abedin, J. T. Gopinath, E. P. Ippen, C. E. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, "Highly nondegenerate femtosecond four-wave mixing in tapered microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1384-1386 (2002).
  11. J. Fan, A. Dogariu, L. J. Wang, "Parametric amplification in a microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 801-805 (2005).
  12. J. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. Wong, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, "Scalar modulation instability in the normal dispersion regime by use of a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 2225-2227 (2003).
  13. A. Chen, G. Wong, S. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. Harvey, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 762-764 (2005).
  14. C. de Matos, D. A. Chestnut, J. R. Taylor, "Continuous-wave 1664.7 nm fiber source utilizing four-wave mixing and stimulated Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1390-1392 (2002).
  15. T. Andersen, K. Hilligsøe, C. Nielsen, J. Thøgersen, K. Hansen, S. Keiding, J. Larsen, "Continuous-wave wavelength conversion in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express 12, 4113-4122 (2004).
  16. R. Jiang, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. J. McKinstrie, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, S. Radic, "Continuous-wave band translation between the near-infrared and visible spectral ranges," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 58-66 (2007).
  17. W. Margulis, U. Österberg, "Four-photon fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 12, 519-521 (1987).
  18. K. Suzuki, M. Nakazawa, H. A. Haus, "Parametric soliton laser," Opt. Lett. 14, 320-322 (1989).
  19. M. E. Marhic, K. K. Y. Wong, L. G. Kazovsky, T. E. Tsai, "Continuous-wave fiber optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 27, 1439-1441 (2002).
  20. T. Torounidis, P. Andrekson, "Broadband single-pumped fiber-optic parametric amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 650-652 (2007).
  21. D. K. Serkland, G. D. Bartolini, A. Agarwal, P. Kumar, W. L. Kath, "Pulsed degenerate optical parametric oscillator based on a nonlinear-fiber Sagnac interferometer," Opt. Lett. 23, 795-797 (1998).
  22. D. K. Serkland, P. Kumar, "Tunable fiber-opticparametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 24, 92-94 (1999).
  23. P. Devgan, J. Lasri, R. Tang, V. Grigoryan, W. Kath, P. Kumar, "10-GHz dispersion-managed soliton fiber-optical parametric oscillator using regenerative mode locking," Opt. Lett. 30, 528-530 (2005).
  24. G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, V. Marie, "High-conversion-efficiency widely-tunable all-fiber optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Express 15, 2947-2952 (2007).
  25. J. Teipel, H. Geissen, "Tapered fiber femtosecond optical parametric oscillator," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electron. Laser Science Conf. Tech. Dig. (Opt. Soc. Amer., 2003) CMO3.
  26. G. D. Bartolini, D. K. Serkland, P. Kumar, W. L. Kath, "All-optical storage of a picosecond-pulse packet using parametric amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1020-1022 (1997).
  27. L. Wang, A. Agarwal, Y. Su, P. Kumar, "All-optical picosecond-pulse packet buffer based on four-wave mixing loading and intracavity soliton control," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 614-619 (2002).
  28. A. Agarwal, L. Wang, Y. Su, P. Kumar, "All-optical loadable and erasable storage buffer based on parametric nonlinearity in fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2229-2238 (2005).
  29. W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).
  30. J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, "Optical-parametric oscillator based on four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 27, 1675-1677 (2002).
  31. Y. Deng, Q. Lin, F. Lu, G. Agrawal, W. Knox, "Broadly tunable femtosecond parametric oscillator using a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 1234-1236 (2005).
  32. J. E. Sharping, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, J. Lasri, O. Lyngnes, K. Vogel, "Octave-spanning, high-power microstructure-fiber-based optical parametric oscillators," Opt. Express 15, 1474-1479 (2007).
  33. C. de Matos, J. Taylor, K. Hansen, "Continuous-wave, totally fiber integrated optical parametric oscillator using holey fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 983-985 (2004).
  34. J. Lasri, P. Devgan, R. Tang, J. E. Sharping, P. Kumar, "A microstructure-fiber-based 10-GHz synchronized tunable optical parametric oscillator in the 1550-nm regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1058-1060 (2003).
  35. Y. Li, L. Qian, D. Lu, D. Fan, "Widely tunable femtosecond fiber optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 267, 491-497 (2006).
  36. R. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1062-1072 (1982).
  37. M. E. Marhic, N. Kagi, T.-K. Chiang, L. G. Kazovsky, "Broadband fiber optical parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 21, 573-575 (1996).
  38. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).
  39. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic , 2001).
  40. B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
  41. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
  42. G. Cappellini, S. Trillo, "Third-order three-wave mixing in single-mode fibers: Exact solutions and spatial instability effects," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 8, 824-838 (1991).
  43. C. J. McKinstrie, X. D. Cao, J. S. Li, "Nonlinear detuning of four-wave interactions," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 10, 1856-1869 (1993).
  44. J. S. Y. Chen, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, "Effect of dispersion fluctuations on widely tunable optical parametric amplification in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 14, 9491-9501 (2006).
  45. S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, "Optical amplification and signal processing in highly nonlinear optical fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 859-869 (2005).
  46. A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear propagation and continuum generation in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 924-926 (2002).

2007

R. Jiang, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. J. McKinstrie, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, S. Radic, "Continuous-wave band translation between the near-infrared and visible spectral ranges," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 58-66 (2007).

T. Torounidis, P. Andrekson, "Broadband single-pumped fiber-optic parametric amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 650-652 (2007).

G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, V. Marie, "High-conversion-efficiency widely-tunable all-fiber optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Express 15, 2947-2952 (2007).

J. E. Sharping, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, J. Lasri, O. Lyngnes, K. Vogel, "Octave-spanning, high-power microstructure-fiber-based optical parametric oscillators," Opt. Express 15, 1474-1479 (2007).

2006

2005

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, "Optical amplification and signal processing in highly nonlinear optical fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 859-869 (2005).

G. Wong, A. Chen, S. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. Harvey, N. Joly, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. Russell, "Continuous-wave tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic-crystal fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 2505-2511 (2005).

J. Fan, A. Dogariu, L. J. Wang, "Parametric amplification in a microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 801-805 (2005).

A. Chen, G. Wong, S. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. Harvey, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 762-764 (2005).

P. Devgan, J. Lasri, R. Tang, V. Grigoryan, W. Kath, P. Kumar, "10-GHz dispersion-managed soliton fiber-optical parametric oscillator using regenerative mode locking," Opt. Lett. 30, 528-530 (2005).

A. Agarwal, L. Wang, Y. Su, P. Kumar, "All-optical loadable and erasable storage buffer based on parametric nonlinearity in fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2229-2238 (2005).

Y. Deng, Q. Lin, F. Lu, G. Agrawal, W. Knox, "Broadly tunable femtosecond parametric oscillator using a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 1234-1236 (2005).

2004

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).

C. de Matos, J. Taylor, K. Hansen, "Continuous-wave, totally fiber integrated optical parametric oscillator using holey fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 983-985 (2004).

M. Dantus, V. Lozovoy, "Experimental coherent laser control of physicochemical processes," Chem. Rev. 104, 1813-1859 (2004).

T. Andersen, K. Hilligsøe, C. Nielsen, J. Thøgersen, K. Hansen, S. Keiding, J. Larsen, "Continuous-wave wavelength conversion in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express 12, 4113-4122 (2004).

2003

J. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. Wong, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, "Scalar modulation instability in the normal dispersion regime by use of a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 2225-2227 (2003).

J. Lasri, P. Devgan, R. Tang, J. E. Sharping, P. Kumar, "A microstructure-fiber-based 10-GHz synchronized tunable optical parametric oscillator in the 1550-nm regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1058-1060 (2003).

2002

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, "Optical-parametric oscillator based on four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 27, 1675-1677 (2002).

L. Wang, A. Agarwal, Y. Su, P. Kumar, "All-optical picosecond-pulse packet buffer based on four-wave mixing loading and intracavity soliton control," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 614-619 (2002).

C. de Matos, D. A. Chestnut, J. R. Taylor, "Continuous-wave 1664.7 nm fiber source utilizing four-wave mixing and stimulated Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1390-1392 (2002).

K. S. Abedin, J. T. Gopinath, E. P. Ippen, C. E. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, "Highly nondegenerate femtosecond four-wave mixing in tapered microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1384-1386 (2002).

M. E. Marhic, K. K. Y. Wong, L. G. Kazovsky, T. E. Tsai, "Continuous-wave fiber optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 27, 1439-1441 (2002).

A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear propagation and continuum generation in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 924-926 (2002).

2001

1999

M. H. Dunn, M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Parametric generation of tunable light from continuous-wave to femtosecond pulses," Science 286, 1513-1517 (1999).

D. K. Serkland, P. Kumar, "Tunable fiber-opticparametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 24, 92-94 (1999).

1998

D. K. Serkland, G. D. Bartolini, A. Agarwal, P. Kumar, W. L. Kath, "Pulsed degenerate optical parametric oscillator based on a nonlinear-fiber Sagnac interferometer," Opt. Lett. 23, 795-797 (1998).

1997

G. D. Bartolini, D. K. Serkland, P. Kumar, W. L. Kath, "All-optical storage of a picosecond-pulse packet using parametric amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1020-1022 (1997).

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).

1996

1993

C. J. McKinstrie, X. D. Cao, J. S. Li, "Nonlinear detuning of four-wave interactions," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 10, 1856-1869 (1993).

1991

G. Cappellini, S. Trillo, "Third-order three-wave mixing in single-mode fibers: Exact solutions and spatial instability effects," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 8, 824-838 (1991).

1989

1987

1982

R. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1062-1072 (1982).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. S. Abedin, J. T. Gopinath, E. P. Ippen, C. E. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, "Highly nondegenerate femtosecond four-wave mixing in tapered microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1384-1386 (2002).

C. de Matos, D. A. Chestnut, J. R. Taylor, "Continuous-wave 1664.7 nm fiber source utilizing four-wave mixing and stimulated Raman scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1390-1392 (2002).

Appl. Phys. B

J. Fan, A. Dogariu, L. J. Wang, "Parametric amplification in a microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 801-805 (2005).

Chem. Rev.

M. Dantus, V. Lozovoy, "Experimental coherent laser control of physicochemical processes," Chem. Rev. 104, 1813-1859 (2004).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

L. Wang, A. Agarwal, Y. Su, P. Kumar, "All-optical picosecond-pulse packet buffer based on four-wave mixing loading and intracavity soliton control," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 614-619 (2002).

R. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, "Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1062-1072 (1982).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Lasri, P. Devgan, R. Tang, J. E. Sharping, P. Kumar, "A microstructure-fiber-based 10-GHz synchronized tunable optical parametric oscillator in the 1550-nm regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1058-1060 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. D. Bartolini, D. K. Serkland, P. Kumar, W. L. Kath, "All-optical storage of a picosecond-pulse packet using parametric amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1020-1022 (1997).

T. Torounidis, P. Andrekson, "Broadband single-pumped fiber-optic parametric amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 650-652 (2007).

IEICE Trans. Electron.

S. Radic, C. J. McKinstrie, "Optical amplification and signal processing in highly nonlinear optical fiber," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 859-869 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol.

R. Jiang, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. J. McKinstrie, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, S. Radic, "Continuous-wave band translation between the near-infrared and visible spectral ranges," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 58-66 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

G. Wong, A. Chen, S. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. Harvey, N. Joly, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. Russell, "Continuous-wave tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic-crystal fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 2505-2511 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol.

A. Agarwal, L. Wang, Y. Su, P. Kumar, "All-optical loadable and erasable storage buffer based on parametric nonlinearity in fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2229-2238 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

G. Cappellini, S. Trillo, "Third-order three-wave mixing in single-mode fibers: Exact solutions and spatial instability effects," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 8, 824-838 (1991).

C. J. McKinstrie, X. D. Cao, J. S. Li, "Nonlinear detuning of four-wave interactions," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 10, 1856-1869 (1993).

Opt. Express

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).

Opt. Lett.

D. K. Serkland, G. D. Bartolini, A. Agarwal, P. Kumar, W. L. Kath, "Pulsed degenerate optical parametric oscillator based on a nonlinear-fiber Sagnac interferometer," Opt. Lett. 23, 795-797 (1998).

C. de Matos, J. Taylor, K. Hansen, "Continuous-wave, totally fiber integrated optical parametric oscillator using holey fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 983-985 (2004).

Opt. Commun.

Y. Li, L. Qian, D. Lu, D. Fan, "Widely tunable femtosecond fiber optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Commun. 267, 491-497 (2006).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).

M. E. Marhic, N. Kagi, T.-K. Chiang, L. G. Kazovsky, "Broadband fiber optical parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 21, 573-575 (1996).

A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear propagation and continuum generation in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 924-926 (2002).

D. K. Serkland, P. Kumar, "Tunable fiber-opticparametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 24, 92-94 (1999).

P. Devgan, J. Lasri, R. Tang, V. Grigoryan, W. Kath, P. Kumar, "10-GHz dispersion-managed soliton fiber-optical parametric oscillator using regenerative mode locking," Opt. Lett. 30, 528-530 (2005).

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, "Optical-parametric oscillator based on four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 27, 1675-1677 (2002).

Y. Deng, Q. Lin, F. Lu, G. Agrawal, W. Knox, "Broadly tunable femtosecond parametric oscillator using a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 1234-1236 (2005).

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, "Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1048-1050 (2001).

F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, X. S. Xie, M. Katz, W. Seitz, D. Kopf, "Broadly tunable dual-wavelength light source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1292-1294 (2006).

W. Margulis, U. Österberg, "Four-photon fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 12, 519-521 (1987).

K. Suzuki, M. Nakazawa, H. A. Haus, "Parametric soliton laser," Opt. Lett. 14, 320-322 (1989).

M. E. Marhic, K. K. Y. Wong, L. G. Kazovsky, T. E. Tsai, "Continuous-wave fiber optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 27, 1439-1441 (2002).

J. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. Wong, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, "Scalar modulation instability in the normal dispersion regime by use of a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 2225-2227 (2003).

A. Chen, G. Wong, S. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. Harvey, J. Knight, W. Wadsworth, P. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 762-764 (2005).

Science

M. H. Dunn, M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Parametric generation of tunable light from continuous-wave to femtosecond pulses," Science 286, 1513-1517 (1999).

Other

J. C. Diels, W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Academic, 1996).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic , 2003).

M. Marhic, Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers, Oscillators and Related Devices (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007).

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer, 1999) pp. 345-362.

J. Teipel, H. Geissen, "Tapered fiber femtosecond optical parametric oscillator," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electron. Laser Science Conf. Tech. Dig. (Opt. Soc. Amer., 2003) CMO3.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic , 2001).

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).

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