Abstract

We discuss the generation, wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) long-haul transmission, and coherent detection of 112-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) at a line rate of 14 Gbaud and spectral efficiencies beyond 4 b/s/Hz. We describe the (off-line) digital signal processing and blind filter adaptation algorithms used in our intradyne receiver and characterize its performance using both simulated and measured 16-QAM waveforms. We measure a required optical signal-to-noise ratio of 20.2 dB (0.1-nm reference bandwidth; $10^{-3}$ bit-error ratio), 3.2-dB off the theoretical limit. We study the effects of finite analog-to-digital converter resolution, laser frequency offset, laser phase noise, and narrowband optical filtering. Our experiments on a 25-GHz WDM grid (4.1-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency) reveal a 1-dB penalty after 7 passes though reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs) and an achievable transmission reach of 1022 km of uncompensated standard single-mode fiber. At a spectral efficiency of 6.2 b/s/Hz (16.67-GHz WDM channel spacing) a transmission reach of 630 km is attained.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. R. W. Tkach, "Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond," Bell Labs. Tech. J. (2010) to appear in.
  2. P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).
  3. R. A. Griffin, A. C. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase shift keying (oDQPSK) for high-capacity optical transmission," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 367-368.
  4. A. H. Gnauck, G Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, "25.6-Tb/s WDM transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 79-84 (2008).
  5. A. H. Gnauck, P.J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," Photonics Technology Letters 18, 883-885 (2006).
  6. C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J Geyer, E. De Man, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64-72 (2008).
  7. P. J. Winzer, "Modulation and multiplexing in optical communication systems," LEOS Newsletter (2009) http://www.ieee.org/organizations/pubs/newsletters/leos/feb09/index.html on-line at.
  8. R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, "Capacity limits of fiber-optic networks," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 163901 (2008).
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  10. M. Nakazawa, "Optical quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with coherent detection up to 128 states," Proc. OFC'09 (2009).
  11. H. Takahashi, A. Al Amin, S. Jansen, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "Highly Spectrally Efficient DWDM Transmission at 7.0 bit/s/Hz using 8 x 65.1-Gbit/s Coherent PDM-OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, (2010).
  12. X. Zhou, J. Yu, D. Qian, T. Wang, G. Zhang, P. Magill, "8$\,\times\,$114 Gb/s, 25-GHz-spaced, PolMux-RZ-8PSK transmission over 640 km of SSMF employing digital coherent detection and EDFA-only amplification," Proc. OFC (2008).
  13. X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, P. Magill, M. Cvijetic, L. Nelson, M. Birk, G. Zhang, S. Ten, H. Matthew, S. Mishra, "Transmission of 32-Tb/s Capacity Over 580km Using RZ-Shaped PDM-8QAM Modulation Format and Cascaded Multi-Modulus Blind Equalization Algorithm," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, (2010).
  14. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, "112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM on a 25-GHz WDM grid," Proc. ECOC (2008).
  15. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, "10$\,\times\,$112-Gb/s PDM 16-QAM transmission over 630 km of fiber with 6.2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," Proc. OFC'09 (2009).
  16. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "10$\,\times\,$112-Gb/s PDM 16-QAM transmission over 1022 km of SSMF with a spectral efficiency of 4.1 b/s/Hz and without optical filtering," Proc. ECOC'09 (2009).
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  18. C. R. Johnson, P. Schniter, T. J. Endres, J. D. Behm, D. R. Brown, R. A. Casas, "Blind equalization using the constant modulus criterion: A review," Proc. IEEE 86, 1927-1950 (1998).
  19. N. K. Jablon, "Joint blind equalization, carrier recovery, and timing recovery for high-order QAM signal constellations," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 40, 1383-1398 (1992).
  20. S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).
  21. J. Yang, J.-J. Werner, G.A. Dumont, "The multimodulus blind equalization and its generalized algorithms," IEEE J. Selec. Areas in Communications 20, 997-1015 (2002).
  22. X. Zhou, J. Yu, P. D. Magill, "Cascaded two-modulus algorithm for blind polarization de-multiplexing of 114-Gb/s PDM-8-QAM optical signals," Proc. OFC'09 (2009).
  23. W. A. Sethares, G. A. Rey, C. R. Johnson, Jr., "Approaches to blind equalization of signals with multiple modulus," Proc. ICASSP'89 (1989).
  24. M. J. Ready, R. P. Gooch, "Blind equalization on radius directed adaptation," Proc. ICASSP'90 (1990).
  25. H. Louchet, K. Kuzmin, A. Richter, "Improved DSP algorithms for coherent 16-QAM transmission," Proc. ECOC'08 (2008).
  26. M. Seimetz, "Performance of coherent optical square-16-QAM-systems based on IQ-transmitters and homodyne receivers with digital phase estimation," Proc. OFC'06 (2006).
  27. R. A. Axford, L. B. Milstein, J. R. Zeidler, "A dual-mode algorithm for blind equalization of QAM signals: CADAMA," Proc. Conf. Rec. 29th Asilomar Conf. Signals, Syst. Comput. (1995) pp. 172.
  28. A. Spalvieri, R. Valtolina, Data-Aided and Phase-Independent Adaptive Equalization for Data Transmission Systems European Patent Application EP 1 089 457 A2 (2000).
  29. T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Noe, "Hardware efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).
  30. E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2675-2692 (2007).
  31. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw Hill, 2001).
  32. M. Seimetz, "Laser linewidth limitations for optical systems with high-order modulation employing feed forward digital carrier phase estimation," Proc. OFC'08 (2008).
  33. Y. Mori, "Phase-noise tolerance of optical 16-QAM signals demodulated with decision-directed carrier-phase estimation," Proc. OFC'09 (2009).
  34. C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, L. W. Stulz, "Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1088-1090 (2003).
  35. C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. P. Klemens, R. C. Keller, "Interleaver Using an Arrayed-Waveguide Grating-Lens-Grating Configuration for Spectrally Efficient Systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 6-8 (2009).

2010 (3)

R. W. Tkach, "Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond," Bell Labs. Tech. J. (2010) to appear in.

H. Takahashi, A. Al Amin, S. Jansen, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "Highly Spectrally Efficient DWDM Transmission at 7.0 bit/s/Hz using 8 x 65.1-Gbit/s Coherent PDM-OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, (2010).

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, P. Magill, M. Cvijetic, L. Nelson, M. Birk, G. Zhang, S. Ten, H. Matthew, S. Mishra, "Transmission of 32-Tb/s Capacity Over 580km Using RZ-Shaped PDM-8QAM Modulation Format and Cascaded Multi-Modulus Blind Equalization Algorithm," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, (2010).

2009 (3)

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Noe, "Hardware efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, B. Goebel, "Foundations for determining capacity limits of fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. (2009) accepted for publication.

C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. P. Klemens, R. C. Keller, "Interleaver Using an Arrayed-Waveguide Grating-Lens-Grating Configuration for Spectrally Efficient Systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 6-8 (2009).

2008 (4)

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J Geyer, E. De Man, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64-72 (2008).

R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, "Capacity limits of fiber-optic networks," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 163901 (2008).

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

A. H. Gnauck, G Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, "25.6-Tb/s WDM transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 79-84 (2008).

2007 (1)

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2675-2692 (2007).

2006 (2)

A. H. Gnauck, P.J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," Photonics Technology Letters 18, 883-885 (2006).

P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

2003 (1)

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, L. W. Stulz, "Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1088-1090 (2003).

2002 (1)

J. Yang, J.-J. Werner, G.A. Dumont, "The multimodulus blind equalization and its generalized algorithms," IEEE J. Selec. Areas in Communications 20, 997-1015 (2002).

1998 (2)

J. R. Treichler, M. G. Larimore, J. C. Harp, "Practical blind demodulators for high-order QAM signals," Proc. IEEE 86, 1907-1926 (1998).

C. R. Johnson, P. Schniter, T. J. Endres, J. D. Behm, D. R. Brown, R. A. Casas, "Blind equalization using the constant modulus criterion: A review," Proc. IEEE 86, 1927-1950 (1998).

1992 (1)

N. K. Jablon, "Joint blind equalization, carrier recovery, and timing recovery for high-order QAM signal constellations," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 40, 1383-1398 (1992).

Bell Labs. Tech. J. (1)

R. W. Tkach, "Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond," Bell Labs. Tech. J. (2010) to appear in.

IEEE J. Selec. Areas in Communications (1)

J. Yang, J.-J. Werner, G.A. Dumont, "The multimodulus blind equalization and its generalized algorithms," IEEE J. Selec. Areas in Communications 20, 997-1015 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, L. W. Stulz, "Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1088-1090 (2003).

C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. P. Klemens, R. C. Keller, "Interleaver Using an Arrayed-Waveguide Grating-Lens-Grating Configuration for Spectrally Efficient Systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 6-8 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

N. K. Jablon, "Joint blind equalization, carrier recovery, and timing recovery for high-order QAM signal constellations," IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 40, 1383-1398 (1992).

J. Lightw. Technol. (7)

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Noe, "Hardware efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Feedforward carrier recovery for coherent optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2675-2692 (2007).

A. H. Gnauck, G Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, "25.6-Tb/s WDM transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 79-84 (2008).

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J Geyer, E. De Man, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64-72 (2008).

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, B. Goebel, "Foundations for determining capacity limits of fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. (2009) accepted for publication.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, P. Magill, M. Cvijetic, L. Nelson, M. Birk, G. Zhang, S. Ten, H. Matthew, S. Mishra, "Transmission of 32-Tb/s Capacity Over 580km Using RZ-Shaped PDM-8QAM Modulation Format and Cascaded Multi-Modulus Blind Equalization Algorithm," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, (2010).

H. Takahashi, A. Al Amin, S. Jansen, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "Highly Spectrally Efficient DWDM Transmission at 7.0 bit/s/Hz using 8 x 65.1-Gbit/s Coherent PDM-OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, (2010).

Opt. Exp. (1)

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

Photonics Technology Letters (1)

A. H. Gnauck, P.J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," Photonics Technology Letters 18, 883-885 (2006).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, "Capacity limits of fiber-optic networks," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 163901 (2008).

Proc. IEEE (3)

P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

J. R. Treichler, M. G. Larimore, J. C. Harp, "Practical blind demodulators for high-order QAM signals," Proc. IEEE 86, 1907-1926 (1998).

C. R. Johnson, P. Schniter, T. J. Endres, J. D. Behm, D. R. Brown, R. A. Casas, "Blind equalization using the constant modulus criterion: A review," Proc. IEEE 86, 1927-1950 (1998).

Other (17)

X. Zhou, J. Yu, D. Qian, T. Wang, G. Zhang, P. Magill, "8$\,\times\,$114 Gb/s, 25-GHz-spaced, PolMux-RZ-8PSK transmission over 640 km of SSMF employing digital coherent detection and EDFA-only amplification," Proc. OFC (2008).

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, "112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM on a 25-GHz WDM grid," Proc. ECOC (2008).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, "10$\,\times\,$112-Gb/s PDM 16-QAM transmission over 630 km of fiber with 6.2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," Proc. OFC'09 (2009).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "10$\,\times\,$112-Gb/s PDM 16-QAM transmission over 1022 km of SSMF with a spectral efficiency of 4.1 b/s/Hz and without optical filtering," Proc. ECOC'09 (2009).

R. A. Griffin, A. C. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase shift keying (oDQPSK) for high-capacity optical transmission," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 367-368.

M. Nakazawa, "Optical quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with coherent detection up to 128 states," Proc. OFC'09 (2009).

P. J. Winzer, "Modulation and multiplexing in optical communication systems," LEOS Newsletter (2009) http://www.ieee.org/organizations/pubs/newsletters/leos/feb09/index.html on-line at.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw Hill, 2001).

M. Seimetz, "Laser linewidth limitations for optical systems with high-order modulation employing feed forward digital carrier phase estimation," Proc. OFC'08 (2008).

Y. Mori, "Phase-noise tolerance of optical 16-QAM signals demodulated with decision-directed carrier-phase estimation," Proc. OFC'09 (2009).

X. Zhou, J. Yu, P. D. Magill, "Cascaded two-modulus algorithm for blind polarization de-multiplexing of 114-Gb/s PDM-8-QAM optical signals," Proc. OFC'09 (2009).

W. A. Sethares, G. A. Rey, C. R. Johnson, Jr., "Approaches to blind equalization of signals with multiple modulus," Proc. ICASSP'89 (1989).

M. J. Ready, R. P. Gooch, "Blind equalization on radius directed adaptation," Proc. ICASSP'90 (1990).

H. Louchet, K. Kuzmin, A. Richter, "Improved DSP algorithms for coherent 16-QAM transmission," Proc. ECOC'08 (2008).

M. Seimetz, "Performance of coherent optical square-16-QAM-systems based on IQ-transmitters and homodyne receivers with digital phase estimation," Proc. OFC'06 (2006).

R. A. Axford, L. B. Milstein, J. R. Zeidler, "A dual-mode algorithm for blind equalization of QAM signals: CADAMA," Proc. Conf. Rec. 29th Asilomar Conf. Signals, Syst. Comput. (1995) pp. 172.

A. Spalvieri, R. Valtolina, Data-Aided and Phase-Independent Adaptive Equalization for Data Transmission Systems European Patent Application EP 1 089 457 A2 (2000).

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