Abstract

The history, fabrication, theory, numerical modeling, optical properties, guidance mechanisms, and applications of photonic-crystal fibers are reviewed.

© 2006 IEEE

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  123. D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
  124. N. Y. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Competition between spectral splitting and Raman frequency shift in negative-dispersion slope photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 248, 281-285 (2005).
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  130. P. Dainese, P. St.J. Russell, G. S. Wiederhecker, N. Joly, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, A. Khelif, "Raman-like light scattering from acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 14, 4141-4150 (2006).
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  134. T. Brabec, F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
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  138. K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, I. Sankawa, "Hole-assisted fiber design for small bending and splice losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737-1739 (2003).
  139. P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Control of dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 2, 435-461 (2005).
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  143. F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 10, 1195-1203 (2002).
  144. T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).
  145. P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, "Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multi-core optical fiber," Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).
  146. W. N. MacPherson, J. D. C. Jones, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Two-core photonic crystal fiber for Doppler difference velocimetry," Opt. Commun. 223, 375-380 (2003).
  147. W. N. MacPherson, E. J. Rigg, J. D. C. Jones, V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Finite-element analysis and experimental results for a microstructured fiber with enhanced hydrostatic pressure sensitivity," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1227-1231 (2005).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Rabinowitz, A. Stein, R. Brickman, A. Kaldor, "Efficient tunable hydrogen Raman laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 739-741 (1979).

G. Bouwmans, R. M. Percival, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "High-power Er:Yb fiber laser with very high numerical aperture pump-cladding waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 817-818 (2003).

Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. (1)

S. Guenneau, A. B. Movchan, "Analysis of elastic band structures for oblique incidence," Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 171, 129-150 (2004).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

P. V. Kaiser, H. W. Astle, "Low-loss single material fibers made from pure fused silica," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021-1039 (1974).

Electron. Lett. (6)

L. Li, G. Wylangowski, D. N. Payne, R. D. Birch, "Broad-band metal glass single-mode fiber polarizers," Electron. Lett. 22, 1020-1022 (1986).

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St.J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic band gaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St.J. Russell, J.-P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fiber," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St.J. Russell, A. H. Greenaway, "Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fiber," Electron. Lett. 36, 1358-1359 (2000).

F. Brechet, P. Roy, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, "Single mode propagation in depressed-core-index photonic-bandgap fiber designed for zero-dispersion propagation at short wavelengths," Electron. Lett. 36, 514-515 (2000).

K. M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, H. N. Rutt, "Extruded single-mode non-silica glass holey optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 546-547 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St.J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).

K. Nakajima, K. Hogari, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, I. Sankawa, "Hole-assisted fiber design for small bending and splice losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1737-1739 (2003).

J. Lasri, P. Devgan, R. Tang, J. E. Sharping, P. Kumar, "A microstructure-fiber-based, 10-GHz synchronized, tunable optical parametric oscillator in the 1550-nm regime," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1058-1060 (2003).

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, P. St.J. Russell, "Very high numerical aperture fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843-845 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

K. Kurokawa, K. Tajima, K. Tsujikawa, K. Nakajima, "Penalty-free dispersion-managed soliton transmission over a 100-km low-loss PCF," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 32-37 (2006).

D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, P. St.J. Russell, "Localised function method for modelling defect modes in 2-D photonic crystals," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2078-2081 (1999).

E. M. Dianov, V. M. Mashinsky, "Germania-based core optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3500-3508 (2005).

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, P. J. Bennett, "Holey optical fibers: An efficient modal model," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1093-1102 (1999).

R. D. Pechstedt, P. St.J. Russell, "Narrow-band in-line fiber filter using surface-guided Bloch modes supported by dielectric multilayer stacks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1541-1545 (1996).

W. N. MacPherson, E. J. Rigg, J. D. C. Jones, V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Finite-element analysis and experimental results for a microstructured fiber with enhanced hydrostatic pressure sensitivity," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1227-1231 (2005).

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

P. J. Roberts, T. J. Shepherd, "The guidance properties of multi-core photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 3, S133-S140 (2001).

J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. (1)

P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Control of dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. Rep. 2, 435-461 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. (2)

A. Hochman, Y. Leviatan, "Analysis of strictly bound modes in photonic crystal fibers by use of a source-model technique," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. 21, 1073-1081 (2004).

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St.J. Russell, J.-P. de Sandro, "Properties of photonic crystal fiber and the effective index model," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. 15, 748-752 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (5)

T. P. White, B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran, D. Maystre, G. Renversez, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botten, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers—1: Formulation," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 19, 2322-2330 (2002).

C. M. Bowden, J. P. Dowling, H. O. Everitt, "Development and applications of materials exhibiting photonic band gaps: Introduction," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 10, 280-413 (1993).

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St.J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 19, 753-764 (2002).

J. Laegsgaard, N. A. Mortenson, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, "Material effects in air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 20, 2046-2051 (2003).

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T.-P. M. Man, P. St.J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers—A novel light source," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 19, 2148-2155 (2002).

Laser Phys. (1)

A. Tünnermann, S. Hofer, S. Liem, J. Limpert, M. Reich, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, H. Zellmer, T. Peschel, V. Guyenot, "Power scaling of high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers," Laser Phys. 15, 107-117 (2005).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, "Sensing with microstructured optical fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854-858 (2001).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

M. C. J. Large, S. Ponrathnam, A. Argyros, I. Bassett, N. S. Punjari, F. Cox, G. W. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, "Microstructured polymer optical fibres: New opportunities and challenges," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 446, 219-231 (2006).

Nature (3)

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultra-short pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 511-515 (2003).

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St.J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fiber gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).

A. Paul, R. A. Bartels, R. Tobey, H. Green, S. Weiman, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, "Quasi-phase-matched generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet light," Nature 421, 51-54 (2003).

Nature Phys. (1)

P. Dainese, P. St.J. Russell, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, G. S. Wiederhecker, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, A. Khelif, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres," Nature Phys. 2, 388-392 (2006).

Opt. Commun. (4)

N. Y. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Competition between spectral splitting and Raman frequency shift in negative-dispersion slope photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 248, 281-285 (2005).

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Remotely addressed optical fiber curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, "Bragg reflection waveguides," Opt. Commun. 19, 427-430 (1976).

W. N. MacPherson, J. D. C. Jones, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Two-core photonic crystal fiber for Doppler difference velocimetry," Opt. Commun. 223, 375-380 (2003).

Opt. Exp. (1)

C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor, T. P. Hansen, K. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, "All-fiber chirped pulse amplification using highly dispersive air-core photonic band gap fiber," Opt. Exp. 11, 2832-2837 (2003).

Opt. Express (41)

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, B. J. Mangan, "High energy nanosecond pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers," Opt. Express 12, 717-723 (2004).

J. Limpert, T. Schriedber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, "All fiber chirped-pulse amplification system based on compression in air-guiding photonic band gap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 3332-3337 (2003).

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St.J. Russell, M. W. Mason, "Supercontinuum generation in submicron fiber waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2864-2869 (2004).

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, "Hole inflation and tapering of stock photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6541-6549 (2005).

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "High power air-clad photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 11, 48-53 (2003).

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, C. Jakobsen, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 11, 818-823 (2003).

G. J. Pearce, J. M. Pottage, D. M. Bird, P. J. Roberts, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Hollow-core PCF for guidance in the mid to far infra-red," Opt. Express 13, 6937-6946 (2005).

J. D. Shephard, W. N. MacPherson, R. R. J. Maier, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. K. George, P. J. Roberts, J. C. Knight, "Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 13, 7139-7144 (2005).

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005).

M. Nielsen, N. Mortensen, M. Albertsen, J. Folkenberg, A. Bjarklev, D. Bonacinni, "Predicting macrobending loss for large-mode area photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1775-1779 (2004).

P. Petropoulos, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, V. Finazzi, R. Moore, K. Frampton, D. Richardson, T. Monro, "Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibers," Opt. Express 11, 3568-3573 (2003).

F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, P. J. Roberts, "Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800 nm wavelength in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 835-840 (2004).

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, A. V. Yulin, N. Y. Joly, F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Time-spectrally-resolved ultrafast nonlinear dynamics in small-core photonic crystal fibers: Experiment and modelling," Opt. Express 12, 6498-6507 (2004).

P. Dainese, P. St.J. Russell, G. S. Wiederhecker, N. Joly, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, A. Khelif, "Raman-like light scattering from acoustic phonons in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 14, 4141-4150 (2006).

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, P. St.J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).

F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, M. R. Wehner, M. Ross, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, N. Y. Joly, P. St.J. Russell, "Spectrally smooth supercontinuum from 350 nm to 3 $\mu\hbox{m}$ in sub-centimeter lengths of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 14, 4928-4934 (2006).

G. Humbert, W. J. Wadsworth, S. G. Leon-Saval, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St.J. Russell, M. J. Lederer, D. Kopf, K. Wiesauer, E. I. Breuer, D. Stifter, "Supercontinuum generation system for optical coherence tomography based on tapered photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express 14, 1596-1603 (2006).

H. Hundertmark, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, N. Haverkamp, H. Telle, "Phase-locked carrier-envelope-offset frequency at 1560 nm," Opt. Express 12, 770-775 (2004).

J. G. Rarity, J. Fulconis, J. Duligall, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St.J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fiber source of correlated photon pairs," Opt. Express 13, 534-544 (2005).

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St.J. Russell, J. G. Rarity, "High brightness single mode source of correlated photon pairs using a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 13, 7572-7582 (2005).

V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, "Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 10, 1520-1525 (2002).

V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Tellurite photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 2641-2645 (2003).

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. A. Jacobs, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core omniguide fibers," Opt. Express 9, 748-779 (2001).

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850 nm wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003).

X. Chen, M. J. Li, N. Venkataraman, M. Gallagher, W. Wood, A. Crowley, J. Carberry, L. Zenteno, K. Koch, "Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 12, 3888-3893 (2004).

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. M. Bird, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Design of low-loss and highly birefringent hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 14, 7329-7341 (2006).

D. Kim, J. U. Kang, "Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity," Opt. Express 12, 4490-4495 (2004).

W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, "Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 10, 609-613 (2002).

J. West, C. Smith, N. Borrelli, D. Allan, K. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Loss in solid-core photonic crystal fibers due to interface roughness scattering," Opt. Express 13, 7779-7793 (2005).

G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. St.J. Russell, D. P. Williams, P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, "Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery," Opt. Express 12, 1477-1484 (2004).

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, P. St.J. Russell, "Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent," Opt. Express 13, 309-314 (2005).

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1243-1251 (2003).

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, P. St.J. Russell, "Guidance properties of low-contrast photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 2503-2511 (2005).

G. Bouwmans, L. Bigot, Y. Quiquempois, F. Lopez, L. Provino, M. Douay, "Fabrication and characterization of an all-solid 2D photonic bandgap fiber with a low-loss region ($<$ 20 dB/km) around 1550 nm," Opt. Express 13, 8452-8459 (2005).

T. A. Birks, D. M. Bird, T. D. Hedley, J. M. Pottage, P. St.J. Russell, "Scaling laws and vector effects in band gap guiding fibres," Opt. Express 12, 69-74 (2004).

J. M. Pottage, D. M. Bird, T. D. Hedley, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, "Robust photonic band gaps for hollow core guidance in PCF made from high index glass," Opt. Express 11, 2854-2861 (2003).

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 10, 1195-1203 (2002).

P. St.J. Russell, E. Marin, A. Diez, A. B. Movchan, "Sonic band gaps in PCF preforms: Enhancing the interaction of sound and light," Opt. Express 11, 2555-2560 (2003).

F. Benabid, P. S. Light, F. Couny, P. St.J. Russell, "Electro-magnetically-induced transparency grid in acetylene-filled hollow-core PCF," Opt. Express 13, 5694-5703 (2005).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, N. Akasaka, M. Nishimura, "Highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fibers and their application to broadband wavelength converter," Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 204-214 (1998).

Opt. Lett. (28)

L. Michaille, C. R. Bennett, D. M. Taylor, T. J. Shepherd, J. Broeng, H. R. Simonsen, A. Petersson, "Phase locking and supermode selection in multicore photonic crystal fiber lasers with a large doped area," Opt. Lett. 30, 1668-1670 (2005).

F. Di Teodoro, C. D. Brooks, "1.1 MW peak-power, 7 W average-power, high-spectral-brightness, diffraction-limited pulses from a photonic crystal fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 30, 2694-2696 (2005).

G. Kakarantzas, T. E. Dimmick, T. A. Birks, R. Le Roux, P. St.J. Russell, "Miniature all-fiber devices based on $\hbox{CO}_2$ laser micro-structuring of tapered fibers," Opt. Lett. 26, 1137-1139 (2001).

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. St.J. Russell, "Structural long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1013-1015 (2002).

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, P. St.J. Russell, L. Farr, F. Couny, B. J. Mangan, "Structural rocking filters in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 158-160 (2003).

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, P. St.J. Russell, "Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1629-1631 (2005).

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, M. Englund, "Multimode fiber devices with single-mode performance," Opt. Lett. 30, 2545-2547 (2005).

S. V. Chernikov, Y. Zhu, J. R. Taylor, V. P. Gapontsev, "Supercontinuum self-Q-switched ytterbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 298-300 (1997).

J. Fan, A. Migdall, L. J. Wang, "Efficient generation of correlated photon pairs in a microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 3368-3370 (2005).

Y. Deng, Q. Lin, F. Lu, G. P. Agrawal, W. H. Knox, "Broadly tunable femtosecond parametric oscillator using a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 1234-1236 (2005).

J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, K. G. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St.J. Russell, "Scalar modulational instability in the normal dispersion regime using a PCF," Opt. Lett. 28, 2225-2227 (2003).

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, "Optical parametric oscillator based on four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 27, 1675-1677 (2002).

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. Ghanta, T. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, A. J. Stentz, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 608-610 (2001).

A. Y. H. Chen, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St.J. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 762-764 (2005).

L. S. Meng, K. S. Repasky, P. A. Roos, J. L. Carlsten, "Widely tunable continuous-wave Raman laser in diatomic hydrogen pumped by an external-cavity diode laser," Opt. Lett. 25, 472-474 (2000).

B. J. Mangan, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Fundamental-mode cutoff in a photonic crystal fiber with a depressed-index core," Opt. Lett. 26, 1469-1471 (2001).

M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, J. R. Baker, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Enhanced two-photon biosensing with double-clad photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1224-1226 (2003).

N. Y. Joly, T. A. Birks, A. Yulin, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Linear and nonlinear guidance in an ultralow loss planar glass membrane," Opt. Lett. 30, 2469-2471 (2005).

M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. N. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, "Symmetry and degeneracy in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 26, 488-490 (2001).

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "All-solid photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 2369-2371 (2004).

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air–silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 25-27 (2000).

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, P. St.J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1325-1327 (2000).

A. Ferrando, J. J. Miret, E. Silvestre, P. Andrés, M. V. Andrés, "Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 24, 276-278 (1999).

D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, P. St.J. Russell, "Group-velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 23, 1662-1664 (1998).

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St.J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St.J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode fiber with photonic crystal cladding: Errata," Opt. Lett. 22, 484-485 (1997).

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).

A. Rosenberg, R. J. Tonucci, H.-B. Lin, A. J. Campillo, "Near-infrared two-dimensional photonic band-gap materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 830-832 (1996).

Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter (4)

G. J. Pearce, T. D. Hedley, D. M. Bird, "Adaptive curvilinear coordinates in a plane-wave solution of Maxwell's equations in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 71, 195108 (2005).

C. T. Chan, Q. L. Yu, K. M. Ho, "Order N spectral method for electromagnetic waves," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 51, 16635-16642 (1995).

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Alerhand, "Accurate theoretical analysis of photonic band-gap materials," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 48, 8434-8437 (1993).

V. Laude, A. Khelif, S. Benchabane, M. Wilm, T. Sylvestre, B. Kibler, A. Mussot, J. M. Dudley, H. Maillotte, "Phononic band-gap guidance of acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 71, 045107 (2005).

Phys. Rev. E, Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Top. (2)

M. Yu, C. J. McKinstrie, G. P. Agrawal, "Modulational instabilities in dispersion-flattened fibers," Phys. Rev. E, Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Top. 52, 1072-1080 (1995).

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, A. A. Asatryan, N. A. Nicorovici, P. A. Robinson, C. M. de Sterke, "Calculation of electromagnetic properties of regular and random arrays of metallic and dielectric cylinders," Phys. Rev. E, Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Top. 60, 7614-7617 (1999).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St.J. Russell, "An optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).

F. Benabid, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, F. Couny, "Ultrahigh efficiency laser wavelength conversion in a gas-filled hollow core photonic crystal fiber by pure stimulated rotational Raman scattering in molecular hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 123903 (2004).

S. Ghosh, J. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, A. L. Gaeta, "Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156-159 (1970).

M. J. Renn, R. Pastel, H. J. Lewandowski, "Laser guidance and trapping of mesoscale particles in hollow-core optical fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1574-1577 (1999).

M. J. Renn, D. Montgomery, O. Vdovin, D. Z. Anderson, C. E. Wieman, E. A. Cornell, "Laser-guided atoms in hollow-core optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253-3256 (1995).

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectronics (1)

C. Mias, J. P. Webb, R. L. Ferrari, "Finite element modelling of electromagnetic waves in doubly and triply periodic structures," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectronics 146, 111-118 (1999).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

T. Brabec, F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).

J. M. Dudley, "Review of supercontinuum generation in PCF," Rev. Mod. Phys. (2006).

Science (8)

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of MW optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, P. St.J. Russell, "Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).

F. Benabid, G. Antonopoulos, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, "Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 298, 399-402 (2002).

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St.J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

D. H. Pearson, R. J. Tonucci, "Nanochannel glass replica membranes," Science 270, 68-70 (1995).

P. St.J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, J. V. Badding, "Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, G. R. G. Erry, A. H. Greenaway, P. Harrison, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. St.J. Russell, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, "Two-dimensional bend sensing with a single, multi-core optical fiber," Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 132-140 (2000).

Sov. Phys.—Tech. Phys. (1)

V. N. Melekin, A. B. Manenkov, "Dielectric tube as a low-loss waveguide," Sov. Phys.—Tech. Phys. 13, 1698-1699 (1968).

Other (11)

D. C. Allan, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, M. T. Gallagher, K. W. Koch, N. F. Borrelli, Photonic Crystals and Light Localisation in the 21st Century (Kluwer, 2001) pp. 305-320.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St.J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "Pure silica single-mode fiber with hexagonal photonic crystal cladding," Conf. Optical Fiber Commun. (OFC) San JoseCA (1996) Postdeadline Paper PD3.

R. Bise, D. J. Trevor, "Sol–gel derived microstructured fiber: Fabrication and characterization," Conf. Optical Fiber Commun. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2005).

http://www.corning.com/opticalfiber/.

P. St.J. Russell, Electron and Photon Confinement in Semiconductor Nanostructures (IOS, 2003) pp. 79-103.

P. St.J. Russell, NATO Advanced Study Institute on Confined Electrons and Holes EriceItaly (1993)EriceItaly private notes, May 1991.

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).

P. St.J. Russell, "Light in a tight space: Enhancing matter-light interactions using photonic crystals," Proc. Conf. Nonlinear Opt.—(Optical Soc. Amer.) (2002) pp. 377-379.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

The Supercontinuum Laser Source (Springer-Verlag, 1989).

T. A. Birks, G. Kakarantzas, P. St.J. Russell, D. F. Murphy, "Photonic crystal fiber devices," Proc. SPIE—(Fiber-Based Component Fabrication, Testing and Connectorization) (2002) pp. 142-151.

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