T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon micro-fabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).

L. Vivien, S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, S. Laval, E. Cassan, J. L. Cercus, X. Le Roux, A. Koster, J. M. Fédéli, M. Heitzmann, "Experimental demonstration of a low-loss optical $H$-tree distribution using silicon-on-insulator microwaveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 701-703 (2004).

Y. A. Vlasov, S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Exp. 12, 1622-1631 (2004).

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 16, 1328-1330 (2004).

S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bouaida, L. Mollard, "Low-loss sub-micrometer SOI rib waveguides and corner mirrors," Opt. Lett. 28, 1150-1152 (2003).

D. Marris, A. Cordat, D. Pascal, A. Koster, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, S. Laval, "Design of a SiGe-Si quantum well optical modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 747-754 (2003).

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2332-2339 (2003).

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Let. 28, 1302-1304 (2003).

L. Vivien, S. Laval, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, "2-D taper for low-loss coupling between polarization-insensitive microwaveguides and single-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2429-2433 (2003).

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaert, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).

T. Fukazawa, A. Sakai, T. Baba, "H-tree-type optical clock signal distribution circuit using a Si photonic wire waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1461-L1463 (2002).

L. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, "High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 586-588 (2002).

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, "Fabrication of ultralow-loss $\hbox{Si}/\hbox{SiO}_{2}$ waveguides by roughness reduction," Opt. Lett. 26, 1888-1890 (2001).

N. Landru, D. Pascal, A. Koster, "Modelling of two-dimensional grating couplers on silicon-on-insulator waveguides using beam propagation method," Opt. Comm. 196, 139-147 (2001).

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a $\hbox{Si}/\hbox{SiO}_{2}$ waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).

R. Orobtchouk, A. Layadi, H. Gualous, D. Pascal, A. Koster, S. Laval, "High-efficiency light coupling in a submicrometric silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Appl. Opt. 39, 5773-5777 (2000).

L. Naval, B. Jalali, L. Gomelsky, J. M. Liu, "Optimization of $\hbox{Si}_{1-{\rm x}}\hbox{Ge}_{\rm x}/\hbox{Si}$ waveguide photodetectors operating at $\lambda = 1.3\ \mu\hbox{m}$," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 787-797 (1996).

R. M. Emmons, D. G. Hall, "Buried-oxide silicon-on-insulator structures II: Waveguide grating couplers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 164-175 (1992).

K. C. Chang, V. Shah, T. Tamir, "Scattering and guiding of waves by dielectric gratings with arbitrary profiles," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 7, 804-812 (1980).

R. Orobtchouk, A. Layadi, H. Gualous, D. Pascal, A. Koster, S. Laval, "High-efficiency light coupling in a submicrometric silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Appl. Opt. 39, 5773-5777 (2000).

D. Pascal, R. Orobtchouk, A. Layadi, A. Koster, S. Laval, "Optimized coupling of a Gaussian beam into an optical waveguide with a grating coupler: Comparison of experimental and theoretical results," Appl. Opt. 36, 2443-2447 (1997).

S. Miyanaga, T. Asagura, "Intensity profile of outgoing beams from uniform and linearly tapered grating couplers," Appl. Opt. 20, 688-695 (1981).

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a $\hbox{Si}/\hbox{SiO}_{2}$ waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).

L. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, "High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 586-588 (2002).

L. Vivien, S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, S. Laval, E. Cassan, J. L. Cercus, X. Le Roux, A. Koster, J. M. Fédéli, M. Heitzmann, "Experimental demonstration of a low-loss optical $H$-tree distribution using silicon-on-insulator microwaveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 701-703 (2004).

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaert, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).

R. M. Emmons, D. G. Hall, "Buried-oxide silicon-on-insulator structures II: Waveguide grating couplers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 164-175 (1992).

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon micro-fabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).

D. Marris, A. Cordat, D. Pascal, A. Koster, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, S. Laval, "Design of a SiGe-Si quantum well optical modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 747-754 (2003).

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 16, 1328-1330 (2004).

L. Vivien, S. Laval, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, "2-D taper for low-loss coupling between polarization-insensitive microwaveguides and single-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2429-2433 (2003).

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2332-2339 (2003).

L. Naval, B. Jalali, L. Gomelsky, J. M. Liu, "Optimization of $\hbox{Si}_{1-{\rm x}}\hbox{Ge}_{\rm x}/\hbox{Si}$ waveguide photodetectors operating at $\lambda = 1.3\ \mu\hbox{m}$," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 787-797 (1996).

K. C. Chang, V. Shah, T. Tamir, "Scattering and guiding of waves by dielectric gratings with arbitrary profiles," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 7, 804-812 (1980).

T. Fukazawa, A. Sakai, T. Baba, "H-tree-type optical clock signal distribution circuit using a Si photonic wire waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1461-L1463 (2002).

N. Landru, D. Pascal, A. Koster, "Modelling of two-dimensional grating couplers on silicon-on-insulator waveguides using beam propagation method," Opt. Comm. 196, 139-147 (2001).

Y. A. Vlasov, S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Exp. 12, 1622-1631 (2004).

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Let. 28, 1302-1304 (2003).

S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bouaida, L. Mollard, "Low-loss sub-micrometer SOI rib waveguides and corner mirrors," Opt. Lett. 28, 1150-1152 (2003).

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, "Fabrication of ultralow-loss $\hbox{Si}/\hbox{SiO}_{2}$ waveguides by roughness reduction," Opt. Lett. 26, 1888-1890 (2001).

Data on silicon on insulator substrate are available at http://www.soitec.com.

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor: Interconnect. http://www.itrs.net/Links/2005ITRS/Interconnect2005.pdf pp. 1-63 (2005).

D. Pascal, S. Lardenois, E. Cassan, A. Koster, S. Laval, M. Heitzmann, L. Mollard, B. Dal'zotto, N. Bouzaïda, R. Orobtchouk, "Efficient light coupling into sub-micrometer rib and strip SOI waveguides," Proc. Integrated Photon. Res. 2002 (2002) pp. ITh17-1.