Abstract

Regardless of the number of constellation points, all quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signals can be generated using a single dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator. When the general method is applied to quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signals, three different QPSK transmitters are shown with drive signals having four, three, or two levels. The usage of only one dual-drive modulator greatly simplifies the design of QAM and QPSK transmitters.

© 2005 IEEE

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  1. R. A. Griffin, R. I. Johnston e, R. G. Walker, J. Hall, S. D. Wadsworth, K. Berry, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, P. A. Jerram and N. J. Parsons, "10 Gb/s optical differential quadrature phase shift key (DQPSK) transmission using GaAs/AlGaAs integration", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), Anaheim, CA, Postdeadline Paper FD6, 2002.
  2. P. S. Cho, V. S. Grigoryan, Y. A. Godin, A. Salamon and Y. Achiam, "Transmission of 25-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK signals with 25-GHz channel spacing over 1000 km of SMF-28 fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 473-475, Mar. 2003.
  3. H. Kim and R.-J. Essiambre, "Transmission of 8 x 20 Gb/s DQPSK signals over 310-km SMF with 0.8 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 769 -771, May 2003.
  4. C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E.-D. Schmidt and B. L. W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1303-1305, Sep. 2003.
  5. Y. Zhu, K. Cordina, N. Jolley, R. Feced, H. Kee, R. Rickard and A. Hadjifotiou, "1.6 bit/s/Hz orthogonally polarized CSRZ -DQPSK transmission of 8 x 40 Gbit/s over 320 km NDSF", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2004), Los Angeles, CA, Paper TuF1, 2004.
  6. P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross and J. B. Khurgin, "Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-Gb/s DWDM transmission over 4 x 100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 656-658, Feb. 2004.
  7. P. S. Cho, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross and J. B. Khurgin, "Investigation of SOA nonlinearities on the amplification of DWDM channels with spectral efficiency up to 2.5 b/s/Hz", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 918 -920, Mar. 2004.
  8. N. Yoshikane and I. Morita, "1.14 b/s/Hz spectrally-efficient 50 x 85.4 Gb/s transmission over 300 km using copolarized CS-RZ DQPSK signals", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2004), Los Angeles, CA, Postdeadline Paper PDP38, 2004.
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  10. R. A. Griffin and A. C. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase-shift key (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), Anaheim, CA, Paper WX6, 2002.
  11. R. Griffin, R. Johnstone, R. Walker, S. Wadsworth, A. Carter and M. Wale, "Integrated DQPSK transmitter for dispersion-tolerant and dispersion-managed DWDM transmission", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2003), Atlanta, GA, Paper FP6, 2003.
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  20. A. H. Gnauck, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, J. Nagel, C. T. Kemmerer, W. J. Minford and D. T. Moser, "Dispersion penalty reduction using an optical modulator with adjustable chirp", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 916-918, Oct. 1991.
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  22. M. Sugiyama, M. Doi, S. Taniguchi, T. Nakazawa and H. Onaka, "Driver-less 40 Gb/s LiNbO3 modulator with sub-1 V drive voltage", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), Anaheim, CA, Postdeadline Paper FB6, 2002.
  23. D. C. Cox, "Linear amplification with nonlinear components", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-22, no. 12, pp. 1942-1945, Dec. 1974.
  24. D. C. Cox and R. P. Leck, "Component signal separation and recombination for linear amplification with nonlinear components", IEEE Trans. Commun. , vol. COM-23, no. 11, pp. 1281-1287, Nov. 1975.
  25. F. J. Casadevall and A. Valdovinos, "Performance analysis of QAM modulations applied to the LINC transmitter", IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 399-406, 1993.
  26. B. Shi and L. Sundstrom, "A 200-MHz IF BiCMOS signal component separator for linear LINC transmitters", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 987-993, Jul. 2000.
  27. X. Zhang, L. E. Larson, P. M. Asbeck and P. Nanawa, "Gain/phase imbalance-minimization techniques for LINC transmitters", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 2507-2516, Dec. 2001.
  28. F. Koyama and K. Oga, "Frequency chirping in external modulators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 87-93, Jan. 1988.

Other (28)

R. A. Griffin, R. I. Johnston e, R. G. Walker, J. Hall, S. D. Wadsworth, K. Berry, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, P. A. Jerram and N. J. Parsons, "10 Gb/s optical differential quadrature phase shift key (DQPSK) transmission using GaAs/AlGaAs integration", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), Anaheim, CA, Postdeadline Paper FD6, 2002.

P. S. Cho, V. S. Grigoryan, Y. A. Godin, A. Salamon and Y. Achiam, "Transmission of 25-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK signals with 25-GHz channel spacing over 1000 km of SMF-28 fiber", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 473-475, Mar. 2003.

H. Kim and R.-J. Essiambre, "Transmission of 8 x 20 Gb/s DQPSK signals over 310-km SMF with 0.8 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 769 -771, May 2003.

C. Wree, N. Hecker-Denschlag, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, J. Leibrich, E.-D. Schmidt and B. L. W. Rosenkranz, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1303-1305, Sep. 2003.

Y. Zhu, K. Cordina, N. Jolley, R. Feced, H. Kee, R. Rickard and A. Hadjifotiou, "1.6 bit/s/Hz orthogonally polarized CSRZ -DQPSK transmission of 8 x 40 Gbit/s over 320 km NDSF", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2004), Los Angeles, CA, Paper TuF1, 2004.

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross and J. B. Khurgin, "Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-Gb/s DWDM transmission over 4 x 100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 656-658, Feb. 2004.

P. S. Cho, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross and J. B. Khurgin, "Investigation of SOA nonlinearities on the amplification of DWDM channels with spectral efficiency up to 2.5 b/s/Hz", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 918 -920, Mar. 2004.

N. Yoshikane and I. Morita, "1.14 b/s/Hz spectrally-efficient 50 x 85.4 Gb/s transmission over 300 km using copolarized CS-RZ DQPSK signals", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2004), Los Angeles, CA, Postdeadline Paper PDP38, 2004.

T. Tokle, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, J.-X. Cai, D. Foursa and A. Pilipetskii, "6500 km transmission of RZ-DQPSK WDM signals", Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 444-445, 2004.

R. A. Griffin and A. C. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase-shift key (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), Anaheim, CA, Paper WX6, 2002.

R. Griffin, R. Johnstone, R. Walker, S. Wadsworth, A. Carter and M. Wale, "Integrated DQPSK transmitter for dispersion-tolerant and dispersion-managed DWDM transmission", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2003), Atlanta, GA, Paper FP6, 2003.

S. Haykin, Digital Communications, New York: Wiley, 1988.

R. C. Alferness, "Titanium-diffused lithium niobate waveguide devices," in Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, T. Tamir, Ed. 2 ed. Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1990, pp. 145-210.

W. K. Burns, M. M. Howerton, R. P. Moeller, R. R. Krähenbühl, R. W. McElhanon and A. S. Greenblatt, "Low drive voltage, broad-band LiNbO3 modulators with and without etched ridges", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2551-2555, Dec. 1999.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien and D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. , vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69-82, Jan.-Feb. 2000.

R. G. Walker, "High-speed electrooptic modulation in GaAs/GaAlAs waveguide devices", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 10, pp. 1444-1453, Oct. 1987.

F. J. Leonberger and J. P. Donnelly, "Semiconductor integrated optic devices," in Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, T. Tamir, Ed. 2 ed. Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1990, pp. 317-396.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulator achieved controlling chromophore shape", Science, vol. 288, pp. 119-122, 2000.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal semiconductor capacitor", Nature, vol. 427, pp. 615-618, 2004.

A. H. Gnauck, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, J. Nagel, C. T. Kemmerer, W. J. Minford and D. T. Moser, "Dispersion penalty reduction using an optical modulator with adjustable chirp", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 916-918, Oct. 1991.

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, "Spectrum of externally modulated optical signals", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 658-663, Feb. 2004.

M. Sugiyama, M. Doi, S. Taniguchi, T. Nakazawa and H. Onaka, "Driver-less 40 Gb/s LiNbO3 modulator with sub-1 V drive voltage", presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 2002), Anaheim, CA, Postdeadline Paper FB6, 2002.

D. C. Cox, "Linear amplification with nonlinear components", IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-22, no. 12, pp. 1942-1945, Dec. 1974.

D. C. Cox and R. P. Leck, "Component signal separation and recombination for linear amplification with nonlinear components", IEEE Trans. Commun. , vol. COM-23, no. 11, pp. 1281-1287, Nov. 1975.

F. J. Casadevall and A. Valdovinos, "Performance analysis of QAM modulations applied to the LINC transmitter", IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 399-406, 1993.

B. Shi and L. Sundstrom, "A 200-MHz IF BiCMOS signal component separator for linear LINC transmitters", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 987-993, Jul. 2000.

X. Zhang, L. E. Larson, P. M. Asbeck and P. Nanawa, "Gain/phase imbalance-minimization techniques for LINC transmitters", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 2507-2516, Dec. 2001.

F. Koyama and K. Oga, "Frequency chirping in external modulators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 87-93, Jan. 1988.

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